Advertisement

Frontiers of Education in China

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 245–266 | Cite as

The Dynamics and Macro Strategy of Structural Reform in Higher Education in China: Case Study of Two Critical Periods (1949–1960 and 1998–2009)

  • Jinghuan Shi
  • Lyeong Jo
  • Maobo Hu
  • Jiayi Li
Research Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

The development of the higher education system in China has experienced huge changes alongside the transitions in the socio-economic milieu since the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. Among the major structural transformations of higher education, the reform during the 1950s and the one from 1998 to 2009 can be seen as two typical cases and manifestations of macro strategy modulation. Both reforms were driven by the need of strengthening and empowering the nation as a whole through the advancement of higher education. But the 1950s reforms featured the perpetuation of state control, highly centralized resource allocation, and authoritarian administration, while the 1998–2009 period reflected the transition from a planned to a market economy in higher education, manifested in an increased weight given to market forces, the enlarged autonomy of higher education institutions (HEIs) and expanded government guidance instead of mere state control. The paper will take the two periods as cases to show why and how the reforms were formulated and what directions they are leading towards.

Keywords

higher education macro strategy 1950’s college reform 1998–2009 reform 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altbach, P. (1992). Patterns in higher education development: Toward the year 2000. In R. Arnove, P. Altbach, & G. Kelly (Eds.), Emergent issues in education: Comparative perspectives (pp. 39–55). Albany, NY: SUNY.Google Scholar
  2. Clark, B. R. (1993). The higher education system. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  3. Gu, M. Y. (2014). Cultural foundations of Chinese education (Wang, J. F., Yao, Z. J., Teng, J. & Zhu, Y., Trans). Boston, MA: Brill.Google Scholar
  4. Guo, F. F., & Shi, J. H. (2016). The relationship between classroom assessment and undergraduates’ learning within Chinese higher education system. Studies in Higher Education, 41(4), 642–663. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.942274 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hayhoe, R. (1996). China’s universities 1895-1995: A century of cultural conflicts. New York, NY: Garland Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hu, A. G., Tang, X., & Yu, Y. L. (2014). 中国国家治理现代化 [China’s modernization of the national governance]. 北京, 中国: 中国人民大学出版社 [Beijing, China: China Renmin University Press].Google Scholar
  7. Kirby, W. C. (2014). The Chinese century? The challenges of higher education. Dædalus: Journal of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 143(2). 145–156. https://doi.org/10.1162/DAED_a_00279 Google Scholar
  8. Li, Y. (2004). 五十年代的院系调整与社会变迁: 院系调整研究之一 [Institute and department reorganization in China in 1950s: Research on departmental adjustment].开放 时代 [Open Times], (5), 15–30.Google Scholar
  9. Liu, D. Y. (2010). 论一流大学的功能定位 [On the orientation of top universities].高教探 索 [Higher Education Exploration], (1), 5–9.Google Scholar
  10. Liu, Y. J. (Ed.). (1993).中国教育大事典 (1949-1990) [Book of major educational events in China (1949-1990)]. 浙江, 中国: 浙江教育出版社 [Hangzhou, China: Zhejiang Education Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  11. Lu, L. J., & Fu, Q. Y. (2003). 1990 年代以来关于五十年代高校院系调整研究综述 [Summary of higher education restructure in 1950s].南京社会科学 [Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences], (12), 65–68.Google Scholar
  12. Mok, K. H. (2006). Education reform and education policy in East Asia.New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  13. Shi, J. H. (2009). The transformation of quality assurance in higher education in China.In T. W. Bigalke & D. E. Neubauer (Eds.). Higher education in Asia/Pacific: Quality and the public good (pp.99–110). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Shi, J. H. (2014). 现代大学制度建设需要 “根” “魂” 及 “骨架” [The construction of modern university system needs: The root, the soul and the bone].中国高教研究 [China Higher Education Research], (4), 1–6Google Scholar
  15. Xue, T. X., & Shen, Y. S. (1997). 50 年代院系调整与90 年代联合办学比较分 析 [Comparative study on 1950s college reform & 1990s joint university].教育发展研究 [Research in Educational Development], (8), 11–15.Google Scholar
  16. Wang, S. G. (2014). 国家治理与国家能力: 中国的治国理念与制度选择 [The national governance and the state capacity: China’s ideologies of governance and the choice of system].Retrieved May 31, 2018, from http://www.aisixiang.com/data/76849.html Google Scholar
  17. Wei, L., & Wang, Y. (2012). 中国现代行政管理体系研究 [Study on Chinese modern administration system].北京, 中国: 国家行政学院出版社 [Beijing, China: Chinese Academy of Governance Press].Google Scholar
  18. Williamson, J. (2012). Is the “Beijing consensus” now dominant? Asia Policy, 13(1), 1–16.doi:10.1353/asp.2012.0012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Yang, D., S. & Han, X. (Eds.). (2011).中国共产党90 年学习读本 [Handbook of CCP 90 anniversaries]. 北京, 中国: 长安出版社 [Beijing, China: Chang’an Press].Google Scholar
  20. Zha, Q., & Mundy, K. (2012). Education and cross-cultural dialogue: A celebration of Ruth Hayhoe’s scholarship.In K. Mundy & Q. Zha (Eds.). Education and global cultural dialogue (pp.1–10). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Zha, Q., Shi, J. H., & Wang, X. Y. (2016). There an alternative university model? The debate around the Chinese model of the university.In J. E. Côté & A. Furlong (Eds.). Routledge handbook of the sociology of higher education (pp.273–285). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of EducationTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations