Water Diffusion in the Semi-Liquid State during Industrial Candy Preparation

  • Valery NormandEmail author
  • Luc Armanet
  • Robert C. McIver
  • Pierre-Etienne Bouquerand


In the domain of production of flavor delivery systems based on carbohydrate matrices, Hot Melt Extrusion (HME) is one of the processes used which implies a relatively slow water evaporation step compared to Spray Drying or other common processes. The HME process of generating liquid syrup is stable only at industrial scales. The drying kinetic associated to the syrup formation is followed by collecting the vapored water. This experiment is exploited to estimate the diffusion coefficient of liquid water in a continuously concentrating carbohydrate melt ranging from 30.4 to 10.2%w/w water content and at temperatures ranging from 100 to 116 °C. A combination of Fick, Arnold and Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher models was used to derive the viscosity of the solution, the gradient thickness at the surface of the stirred solution and the diffusion coefficient of water in the liquid under boiling conditions. It is here demonstrated that under continuous boiling conditions, the water concentration gradient depth from the surface of the solution has a dimension that is comparable to the size of the hydrated carbohydrate molecules and the diffusion coefficient of water in boiling carbohydrate solutions ranges from 5.10−9 cm.s−2 for low temperature and high water content to 10−11 cm.s−2 for high temperature and low water content.

Graphical Abstract


Durarome® Boiling point elevation Diffusion coefficient Melt viscosity Phase transition 



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Firmenich Inc.PlainsboroUSA
  2. 2.FirmenichAnaheimUSA
  3. 3.FirmenichMeyrin 2Switzerland

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