The aim of this work was to evaluate how the physical properties of oleogels formulated with candelilla wax (CLX), monoglycerides (MG), and hardfat (HF) change with the addition of 1–30% water (w/w). Physical properties such as crystal microstructure, melting and rheological behavior, hardness, oil binding capacity, and thermal stability were evaluated. The oleogels evaluated in this study formed stable water-in-oil emulsion gels at 25 °C without the use of additional emulsifiers. The water addition in a range from 1 to 20% (w/w) resulted in a reduction in crystal size (Dm) from approximately 10 μm for the oleogel to less than 8 μm for the emulsion gels. This reduction in crystal size suggests that a well-organized crystalline network was formed in the emulsion gels resulting in improved physical properties. Emulsion gels with 1 to 20% (w/w) water showed a narrower melting profile, higher firmness, and lower oil loss compared to those of oleogel, and showed higher stability after temperature cycling at 40 °C. Samples with 1 and 5% w/w of water showed the best improvement in physical properties since they were 3 times harder than the respective oleogel with values of 0.42 N for the emulsions and 0.15 N for the oleogel. Also, the water addition increased G’ value from 4132.92 Pa for oleogel to 13157.78 Pa for emulsion with 1% water and 9702.35 Pa for emulsion with 5% water. The obtained results suggest that water amount up to 20% (w/w) can be added to oleogel to form stable emulsion gels.
Emulsion gel Oleogel Candelilla wax Monoglyceride Physical properties
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The authors would like the express their gratitude for the Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science of Utah State University and Capes for the international scholarship (n° 88881.134926/2016-01). This research was supported by the Utah Agricultural Experiment Station, Utah State University, and approved as journal paper number 9047.