Advertisement

Development and Application of a Short-Form Questionnaire for Assessing Spiritual, Religious and Personal Beliefs Related to Quality of Life (WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF) in Portugal

  • Maria Nazarete Costa Catré
  • Joaquim Armando Ferreira
  • Maria Costa Catré
  • Marco PereiraEmail author
Article
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of a short-form instrument for assessing spiritual, religious and personal beliefs related to quality of life (WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF). The European Portuguese version of the WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF was completed by a heterogeneous sample of 606 participants (72.4% female), with a mean age of 46.88 years, and with no religious affiliation or distinct religions (71.3% Catholic). In addition to the WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF, participants completed the Portuguese versions of the Brief Religious Coping questionnaire (Brief RCOPE), and the measure of orientation toward religion AGE UNIVERSAL I-E Scale-12. The European Portuguese version of the WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF showed satisfactory reliability (Cronbach’s alpha between 0.71 and 0.87 across domains). Confirmatory factor analysis corroborated the proposed five-domain structure. Convergent validity with the general facet on QoL was satisfactory for all domains. Spiritual QoL was significantly and positively associated with positive religious coping (r = .62, p < .001), as well as intrinsic (r = .62, p < .001) and extrinsic personal (r = .34, p < .001) religious orientation. Known-groups validity considering the strength of religious, spiritual and personal beliefs was demonstrated for Spiritual QoL, however, no significant differences were found regarding sex, age, and health status. These results offer promising support for the use of the WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF as a measure of spirituality, religion and personal beliefs related to quality of life (Spiritual QoL).

Keywords

Quality of life Reliability Validity WHOQOL-SRPB-BREF 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Agli, O., Bailly, N., & Ferrand, C. (2015). Spirituality and religion in older adults with dementia: A systematic review. International Psychogeriatrics, 27, 715–725.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allport, G. W., & Ross, M. J. (1967). Personal religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432–443.Google Scholar
  3. Ano, G. G., & Vasconcelles, E. B. (2005). Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 461–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Byrne, B. (2010). Structural equation modeling with AMOS: Basic concepts, applications and programming (2nd ed.). New York: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  5. Chan, K. (2018). Is religious and existential well-being important in quality of life in Hong Kong Chinese? The Social Science Journal, 55, 273–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, K., Verplanken, B., & Skevington, S. (2017). Cross cultural application of the WHOQOL-SRPB in the Chinese community with diverse spiritual affiliations. Social Indicators Research, 132, 291–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Costa Catré, M. N. (2017). Qualidade de vida, espiritualidade, religiosidade e crenças pessoais. Um estudo com profissionais da educação [Quality of life, spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs: A study with Education professionals]. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.Google Scholar
  8. Counted, V., Possamai, A., & Meade, T. (2018). Relational spirituality and quality of life 2007 to 2017: An integrative research review. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 16(1), 75.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-018-0895-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deb, S., & Strodl, E. (2018). Quality of life and spirituality in Indian university students. Applied Research in Quality of Life. Advance online publication, 14, 393–408.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11482-018-9602-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fleck, M., & Skevington, S. (2007). Explaining the meaning of the WHOQOL-SRPB. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 34, 67–69.Google Scholar
  11. Fleck, M., Borges, Z., Bolognesi, G., & Rocha, N. (2003). Desenvolvimento do WHOQOL, módulo espiritualidade, religiosidade e crenças pessoais [Development of WHOQOL spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs module]. Revista de Saúde Pública, 37, 446–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Freire, J., & Moleiro, C. (2015). Religiosity, spirituality, and mental health in Portugal: A call for a conceptualisation, relationship, and guidelines for integration (a theoretical review). Psicologia, 29, 17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freire, J., Moleiro, C., Rosmarin, D. H., & Freire, M. (2018). A call for collaboration: Perception of religious and spiritual leaders on mental health (A Portuguese sample). Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 21, 55–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gorsuch, R. L., & Venable, G. D. (1983). Development and validation of an age I-E scale. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 22, 181–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grover, S., Shah, R., & Kulhara, P. (2013). Validation of Hindi translation of SRPB facets of WHOQOL-SRPB scale. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 35, 358–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harrison, M. O., Koenig, H. G., Hays, J. C., Eme-Akwari, A. G., & Pargament, K. I. (2001). The epidemiology of religious coping: A review of recent literature. International Review of Psychiatry, 13, 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hsien-Chuan Hsu, P., Krageloh, C. U., Shepherd, D., & Billington, R. (2009). Religion/spirituality and quality of life of international tertiary students in New Zealand: An exploratory study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 12, 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hyland, M. E. (2003). A brief guide to the selection of quality of life instrument. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Instituto Nacional de Estatística. (2012). Censos 2011: XV Recenseamento Geral da População e V Recenseamento Geral da Habitação. Lisboa: Instituto Nacional de Estatística, I.P.Google Scholar
  20. Koenig, H. G. (2009). Research on religion, spirituality, and mental health: A review. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54, 283–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Koenig, H. G. (2012). Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. International Scholarly Research Network.  https://doi.org/10.5402/2012/278730.
  22. Koenig, H. G., George, L. K., & Titus, P. (2004). Religion, spirituality, and health in medically ill hospitalized older patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 554–562.Google Scholar
  23. Kristeller, J. L., Sheets, V., Johnson, T., & Frank, B. (2011). Understanding religious and spiritual influences on adjustment to cancer: Individual patterns and differences. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 34, 550–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krok, D. (2008). The role of spirituality in coping: Examining the relationships between spiritual dimensions and coping styles. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11, 643–653.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670801930429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kruizinga, R., Hartog, I. D., Jacobs, M., Daams, J. G., Scherer-Rath, M., Schilderman, J. B., … Van Laarhoven, H. W. (2016). The effect of spiritual interventions addressing existential themes using a narrative approach on quality of life of cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psycho-Oncology, 25, 253–265.Google Scholar
  26. Maltby, J. (1999). The internal structure of a derived, revised and amended measure of the religious orientation scale: The 'Age-Universal' I-E Scale-12. Social Behavior and Personality, 27, 407–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Maltby, J., Lewis, C. A., Freeman, A., Day, L., Cruise, S. M., & Breslin, M. J. (2010). Religion and health: The application of a cognitive-behavioural framework. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 13, 749–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mandhouj, O., Etter, J. F., Courvoisier, D., & Aubin, H. J. (2012). French-language version of the World Health Organization quality of life spirituality, religiousness and personal beliefs instrument. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 10(1), 39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moreira-Almeida, A., & Koenig, H. G. (2006). Retaining the meaning of the words religiousness and spirituality: A commentary on the WHOQOL SRPB group’s “a cross-cultural study of spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs as components of quality of life”. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 843–845.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. O’Connell, K. A., & Skevington, S. M. (2005). The relevance of spirituality, religion and personal beliefs to health-related quality of life: Themes from focus groups in Britain. British Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 379–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. O’Connell, K. A., & Skevington, S. M. (2007). To measure or not to measure? Reviewing the assessment of spirituality and religion in health-related quality of life. Chronic Illness, 3, 77–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. O’Connell, K. A., & Skevington, S. M. (2010). Spiritual, religious, and personal beliefs are important and distinctive to assessing quality of life in health: A comparison of theoretical models. British Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 729–748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Panzini, R. G., Maganha, C., Rocha, N. S. D., Bandeira, D. R., & Fleck, M. P. (2011). Brazilian validation of the quality of life instrument/spirituality, religion and personal beliefs. Revista de Saúde Pública, 45, 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Pargament, K. I., Smith, B. W., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. (1998). Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37, 710–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N., & Hahn, J. (2004). Religious coping methods as predictors of psychological, physical and spiritual outcomes among medically ill elderly patients: A two-year longitudinal study. Journal of Health Psychology, 9(6), 713–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pargament, K., Feuille, M., & Burdzy, D. (2011). The brief RCOPE: Current psychometric status of a short measure of religious coping. Religions, 2, 51–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Pedersen, H. F., Pargament, K. I., Pedersen, C. G., & Zachariae, R. (2013). Religious coping and quality of life among severely ill lung patients in a secular society. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23, 188–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ramirez, S. P., Macêdo, D. S., Sales, P. M., Figueiredo, S. M., Daher, E. F., Araújo, S. M., et al. (2012). The relationship between religious coping, psychological distress and quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 72, 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rosmarin, D. H., Wachholtz, A., & Ai, A. (2011). Beyond descriptive research: Advancing the study of spirituality and health. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 34, 409–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Salsman, J. M., Brown, T. L., Brechting, E. H., & Carlson, C. R. (2005). The link between religion and spirituality and psychological adjustment: The mediating role of optimism and social support. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(4), 522–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Skevington, S. M., Gunson, K. S., & O’Connell, K. A. (2013). Introducing the WHOQOL-SRPB BREF: Developing a short-form instrument for assessing spiritual, religious and personal beliefs within quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 22, 1073–1083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith, T. B., McCullough, M. E., & Poll, J. (2003). Religiousness and depression: Evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 614–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Streiner, D. L., & Norman, G. N. (1995). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Teixeira, A. (2012). Identidades religiosas em Portugal: Representações, valores e práticas [Religious identities in Portugal: Representations, values and practices]. Universidade Católica Portuguesa. Retrieved from http://www.agencia.ecclesia.pt/dlds/bo/Inqurito2011_Resumo.pdf
  45. Terwee, C. B., Bot, S. D., de Boer, M. R., van der Windt, D. A., Knol, D. L., Dekker, J., et al. (2007). Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 60, 34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Trevino, K. M., Pargament, K. I., Cotton, S., Leonard, A. C., Hahn, J., Caprini-Faigin, C. A., & Tsevat, J. (2007). Religious coping and physiological, psychological, social, and spiritual outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. AIDS and Behavior, 14, 379–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. WHOQOL Group. (1994). Development of the WHOQOL: Rationale and current status. International Journal of Mental Health, 23(3), 24–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. WHOQOL Group. (1995). The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): Position paper from the World Health Organization. Social Science & Medicine, 41, 1403–1409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. WHOQOL Group. (1998a). Development of World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychological Medicine, 28, 551–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. WHOQOL Group. (1998b). The World Health Organization quality of life assessment (WHOQOL): Development and general psychometric properties. Social Science & Medicine, 46, 1569–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. WHOQOL SRPB Group (2002). WHOQOL Spirituality, Religiousness, and Personal Beliefs (SRPB) Field-Test Instrument. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/622.pdf
  52. WHOQOL SRPB Group. (2006). A cross-cultural study of spirituality, religion, and personal beliefs as components of quality of life. Social Science & Medicine, 62, 1486–1497.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.08.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. World Health Organization (2002). WHOQOL-SRPB Users Manual. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/media/en/620.pdf

Copyright information

© The International Society for Quality-of-Life Studies (ISQOLS) and Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Agrupamento de Escolas de Eugénio de CastroCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Faculty of Psychology and Education SciencesUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.Faculty of Sciences and TechnologyUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  4. 4.Faculdade de Psicologia e Ciências da Educação da Universidade de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

Personalised recommendations