Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 649–660 | Cite as

Host-Immune Interactions in JC Virus Reactivation and Development of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML)

  • Amir Khalili
  • Michael Craigie
  • Martina Donadoni
  • Ilker Kudret SariyerEmail author


With the advent of immunomodulatory therapies and the HIV epidemic, the impact of JC Virus (JCV) on the public health system has grown significantly due to the increased incidence of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML). Currently, there are no pharmaceutical agents targeting JCV infection for the treatment and the prevention of viral reactivation leading to the development of PML. As JCV primarily reactivates in immunocompromised patients, it is proposed that the immune system (mainly the cellular-immunity component) plays a key role in the regulation of JCV to prevent productive infection and PML development. However, the exact mechanism of JCV immune regulation and reactivation is not well understood. Likewise, the impact of host factors on JCV regulation and reactivation is another understudied area. Here we discuss the current literature on host factor-mediated and immune factor-mediated regulation of JCV gene expression with the purpose of developing a model of the factors that are bypassed during JCV reactivation, and thus are potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions to suppress PML initiation.

Graphical Abstract


JC virus PML Immunosuppression Reactivation Diagnosis Therapy 



This work was made possible by grants awarded by NIH to IKS (AI101192).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amir Khalili
    • 1
  • Michael Craigie
    • 1
  • Martina Donadoni
    • 1
  • Ilker Kudret Sariyer
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Neuroscience and Center for NeurovirologyLewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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