Advertisement

Smartphone Addiction and Its Relationship with Cyberbullying Among University Students

  • Mohammad Farhan Al. Qudah
  • Ismael Salamah AlbursanEmail author
  • Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhiet
  • Elsayed Mohammed Abu Hashem Hassan
  • Ali A. Alfnan
  • Suliman S. Aljomaa
  • Mohammed Mohammed Ateik AL-khadher
Original Article
  • 22 Downloads

Abstract

The present study explored smartphone addiction (SA) and cyberbullying among a group of university students. Participants were 449 male and female university students whose ages ranged from 17 to 24 years. A scale probing SA and cyberbullying was used to collect data. The frequency of SA among participants was 33.2. In terms of the daily usage of smartphones, 67.3 participants were found to use smartphones for more than 4 h per day. The frequency of cyberbullying reported by participants was 20.7. Furthermore, significant differences between males and females in SA and cyberbullying were found favoring males. Finally, data revealed that cyberbullying can be predicted by university students’ SA.

Keywords

Smartphone addiction Cyberbullying University students Gender differences Technology addiction 

Notes

Funding Information

The authors extend their appreciation to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this work through Research Group no. RG-1438-064.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Informed Consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (5). Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abo-Jedi, A. (2008). Cellphone addiction and its relation to self-closure in a sample of Jordanian university and Amman private university students. The Jordanian Journal for Educational Sciences, 4, 137–150 (In Arabic).Google Scholar
  2. Akbulut, Y., & Eristi, B. (2011). Cyberbullying and victimization among Turkish university students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(7), 1155–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alasdair, A. & Philips, J. (2011). Children and mobile phones. The content of this Article can be freely used with appropriate citation www.powerwatch.org.uk or www.emfields.org. P1–8.
  4. Al-Barashdi, H., Bouazza, A., & Jabur, N. (2015). Smartphone addiction among university undergraduates: a literature review. Journal of Scientific Research & Reports, 4(3), 210–225.  https://doi.org/10.9734/JSRR/2015/12245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Al-Bitar, Z., Al-Omari, I., Sonbol, H., Al-Ahmad, H., & Cunningham, S. (2013). Bullying among Jordanian schoolchildren, its effects on school performance, and the contribution of general physical and dentofacial features. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 144(6), 872–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Al-Harbi, N. (2013). Bullying and its relation to self-esteem in the light of gender and number of friends among secondary school students in Medina, KSU. Mission of Education and Psychology, 42, 6–29 (In Arabic).Google Scholar
  7. Aljomaa, S., Al.Qudah, M., Albursan, I., Bakhiet, S., & Abduljabbar, A. (2016). Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 155–164.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.03.041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alosaimi, F., Alyahya, H., Alshahwan, H., Al Mahyijari, N., & Shaik, S. (2016). Smartphone addiction among university students in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical Journal, 37(6), 675–683.  https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2016.6.14430.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Al-Qahtani, N. (2008). Bullying among intermediate school students in Riyadh: a survey study and proposing prevention programs. Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, King Saud University. (In Arabic).Google Scholar
  10. Andrews, S., Ellis, D., Shaw, H., & Piwek, L. (2015). Beyond selfreport: tools to compare estimated and real-world smartphone use. PLoS One, 10(10), e0139004.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139004.
  11. Arslan, S., Savaser, S., Hallett, V., & Balci, S. (2012). Cyberbullying among primary school students in Turkey: self-reported prevalence and associations with home and school life. Cyber Psychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 15(10), 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Athanasiades, C., Kamariotis, H., Psalti, A., Baldry, A. C., & Sorrentino, A. (2015). Internet use and cyberbullying among adolescent students in Greece: the “Tabby” project. Hellenic Journal of Psychology, 12, 14–39.Google Scholar
  13. Athanasiades, C., Baldry, A. C., Kamariotis, T., Kostouli, M., & Psalti, A. (2016). The “net” of the Internet: risk factors for cyberbullying among secondary-school students in Greece. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 22(2), 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Beranuy, M., Oberst, U., Carboner, X., & Chamarro, A. (2009). Problematic Internet and mobile phone use and clinical symptoms in college students: the role of emotional intelligence. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(5), 1182–1187.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berne, S., Fris’en, A., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Naruskov, K., Luik, P., Katzer, C., Erentaite, R., & Zukauskiene, R. (2013). Cyberbullying assessment instruments: a systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 320–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bisen, S., & Deshpande, Y. (2016). An analytical study of smartphone addiction among engineering students: a gender differences. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 4(1), 70–83.Google Scholar
  17. Bolle, C. (2014). “Who is a smartphone addict?” The impact of personal factors and type of usage on smartphone addiction in a Dutch population. Master’s thesis, University of Twente, Enschede.Google Scholar
  18. Bumpas, S. N. (2015). Cyberbullying prevention: intervention effects on student involvement. PhD dissertation, Bellarmine University.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, S. W. (2005). The impact of the mobile phone on young people’s social life. Paper presented to the Social Change in the 21st Century Conference, Centre for Social Change Research, Queensland University of Technology, 28 October 2005.Google Scholar
  20. Chad, A., & Brendesha, M. (2015). Longitudinal associations between cybervictimization and mental health among U.S. adolescent. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57, 305–312.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chang, F. C., Chiu, C. H., Miao, N. F., Chen, P. H., Lee, C. M., Chiang, J. T., & Pan, Y. C. (2015). The relationship between parental mediation and Internet addiction among adolescents, and the association with cyberbullying and depression. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 57, 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen, Q., & Yan, Z. (2016). Does multitasking with mobile phones affect learning? A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chiu, S., Hong, F., & Chiu, S. (2013). An analysis on the correlation and gender difference between college students’ Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction in Taiwan. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2013, 360607, 10 pages.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/360607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choi, S., Kim, D., Choi, J., Ahn, H., Choi, E., Song, W., Kim, S., & Youn, H. (2015). Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(4), 308–314.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.4.2015.043.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. Cicioğlu, M. (2014). Students’ opinions about problematic Internet use and cyber bullying behaviors, (Master’s thesis), Abant İzzet Baysal University Institute of Educational Science.Google Scholar
  26. Cole, J., Cornell, D., & Sheras, P. (2006). Identification of school bullies by survey methods. Professional School Counseling, 9(4), 305–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Crosslin, K., & Crosslin, M. (2014). Cyberbullying at a Texas University—a mixed methods approach to examining online aggression. Texas Public Health Journal, 66(3), 26–31.Google Scholar
  28. Davey, S., & Davey, A. (2014). Assessment of smartphone addiction in Indian adolescents: a mixed method study by systematic-review and meta-analysis approach. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(12), 1500–1511.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. De Pasquale, C., Sciacca, F., & Hichy, Z. (2015). Smartphone addiction and dissociative experience: an investigation in Italian adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years. International Journal of Psychology & Behavior Analysis, 109(1).  https://doi.org/10.15344/2455-3867/2015/109.
  30. Desouky, D., & Ibrahem, R. (2015). Internet addiction and psychological morbidity among Menoufia University students, Egypt. American Journal of Public Health Research, 3(5), 192–198.  https://doi.org/10.12691/ajphr-3-5-3. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dilmac, B. (2009). Psychological needs as a predictor of cyber bullying: a preliminary report on college students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 9, 1307–1325.Google Scholar
  32. Doane, A. N., Kelley, M. L., Chiang, E. S., & Padilla, M. A. (2013). Development of the cyberbullying experiences survey. Emerging Adulthood, 1(3), 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. El-Shenawy, O. L. (2014). The psychometric efficiency of cyberbullying scale (victim–bully). Journal of the Service Center for Psychological Counseling Faculty of Arts—Menoufia University, 11, 1–50.Google Scholar
  34. Emanuel, R., Bell, R., Cotton, C., Craig, J., Drummond, D., Gibson, S., Harris, A., Harris, M., Hatcher-V, Jones, S., Lewis, J., Longmire, T., Nash, B., Ryans, T., Tyre, E., Walters, D., & Williams, A. (2015). The truth about smartphone addiction. College Student Journal, 49(2), 291–299.Google Scholar
  35. Faucher, C., Jackson, M., & Cassidy, W. (2014). Cyberbullying among university students: gendered experiences, impacts, and perspectives. Education Research International, 698545, 10 pages.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/698545.
  36. Fleming, C., & Jacobsen, H. (2009). Bullying among middle school students in low and middle income countries. Health Promotion International, 25(1), 73–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Floros, G. D., Siomos, K. E., Fisoun, V., Dafuli, E., & Geroukalis, D. (2013). Adolescent online cyberbullying in Greece: The impact of parental online security practices, bonding, and online impulsiveness. Journal of School Health, 83(6), 445–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fredstrom, P. K., Adams, R. E., & Gilman, R. (2011). Electronic and school-based victimization: unique contexts for adjustment difficulties during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40, 405–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Given, L. (2008). Convenience sample. In The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. SAGE Publications.  https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412963909.n68 .
  40. GSMA. (2011). Children’s use of cellphones: an international comparative study. NITTDOCOMO. Available on line http://www.gsma.com/publicpolicy/wpcontent/uploads/2012/06/DOCOMO_Report2810_EXECSUM_Ar.pdf.
  41. Heiman, T., Olenik-Shemesh, D., & Eden, S. (2015). Cyberbullying involvement among students with ADHD: relation to loneliness, self-efficacy and social support. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 30(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2010). Bullying, cyberbullying, and suicide. Archives of Suicide Research, 14(3), 206–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2011). High-tech cruelty. Educational Leadership, 68(5), 48–52.Google Scholar
  45. Hong, F., Chiu, S., & Huang, D. (2012). A model of the relationship between psychological characteristics, mobile phone addiction and use of mobile phones by Taiwanese university female students. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2152–2159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.06.020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jiménez, F., Sánchez, G., & Tobón, C. (2009). A social desirability scale for the MMPI-2. Which of the two: Wiggins (WSD) or Edwards (ESD)? The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 1, 147–163.Google Scholar
  47. Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the school grounds?—bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496–505.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00335.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Khalil, A., Alharbi, N., Alhawasawi, H., & Albander, A. (2016). Prevalence of Internet addiction among nursing students and the association with their academic performance and mental health. Athens Journal of Health, 3(4), 291–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Khamis, V. (2015). Bullying among school-age children in the greater Beirut area: risk and protective factors. Child Abuse and Neglect, 39, 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim, Y., Lee, N., & Lim, Y. (2017). Gender differences in the association of smartphone addiction with food group consumption among Korean adolescents. Public Health, 145, 132–135.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2016.12.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kırcaburun, K., & Bastug, I. (2016). Predicting cyberbullying tendencies of adolescents with problematic Internet use. International Journal of Social Science, 48, 385–396.  https://doi.org/10.9761/JASSS3597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kwon, Y., & Paek, K. (2016). The influence of smartphone addiction on depression and communication competence among college students. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 9(41), 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i41/103844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lee, E. (2015). Too much information: heavy smartphone and Facebook utilization by African American young adults. Journal of Black Studies, 46(1), 44–61 https://doi-org.sdl.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/0021934714557034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Long, J., Liu, T., Liao, Y., Qi, C., He, H., Chen, S., & Billieux, J. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 408–420.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1083-3.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Lopez-Fernandez, O. (2017). Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use. Addictive behviours, 64, 275–280.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.11.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Madewy, M. (2013). Effects of the mobile phone on social interaction patterns among university students: Université de Constantine as an example. Unpublished MA Thesis, College of Human, Social and Islamic Sciences. Hadj Lakhadar Université, Batna. (In Arabic).Google Scholar
  57. Muñiz, J., Elosua, P., & Hambleton, R. K. (2013). International Test Commission Guidelines for test translation and adaptation: Second edition. Psicothema, 25, 151–157.  https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2013.24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Nartgün, Ş. S., & Cicioğlu, M. (2015). Problematic Internet use and cyber bullying in vocational school students. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(3), 10–26.Google Scholar
  59. Navarro, R., Serna, C., Martínez, V., & RuizOliva, R. (2013). The role of Internet use and parental mediation on cyberbullying victimization among Spanish children from rural public schools. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 28(3), 725–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Olenik-Shemesh, D., Heiman, T., & Eden, S. (2012). Cyberbullying victimization in adolescence: relationships with loneliness and depressive mood. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 17(3–4), 361–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Olufadi, Y. (2015). Configurationally approach to the investigation of the multiple paths to success of students through mobile phone use behaviors. Computers, 86, 84–104.Google Scholar
  62. Park, N., & Lee, H. (2014a). Gender difference in social networking on smartphones: a case study of Korean college student smartphone users. International Telecommunications Policy Review, 21(2), 1–18.Google Scholar
  63. Park, N., & Lee, H. (2014b). Nature of youth smartphone addiction in Korea diverse dimensions of smartphone use and individual traits. Communications and Information Studies, 51(1), 100–132.Google Scholar
  64. Perry, M. (2015). Emotional and social effects of cyberbullying on adolescents (Doctoral dissertation, City University of Seattle).Google Scholar
  65. Randler, C., Wolfgang, L., Matt, K., Demirhan, E., Bari, M., Horzum, S., & Soluk, S. (2016). Smartphone addiction proneness in relation to sleep and morningness–eveningness in German adolescents. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(3), 465–473.  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.5.2016.056.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., & Thornhill, A. (2012). Research methods for business students (6th ed.) Pearson Education Limited.Google Scholar
  67. Scholtz, B., Turha, T., & Johnston, K. (2015). Internet visibility and cyber bullying: a survey of Cape Town high school students. The African Journal of Information and Communication (AJIC), (15).Google Scholar
  68. Soni, R., Upadhyay, R., & Jain, M. (2017). Prevalence of smart phone addiction, sleep quality and associated behaviour problems in adolescents. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 5(2), 515–519.  https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-6012.ijrms20170142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Stewart, R. W., Drescher, C. F., Maack, D. J., Ebesutani, C., & Young, J. (2014). The development and psychometric investigation of the Cyberbullying Scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(12), 2218–2238.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260513517552.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Tokunaga, R. S. (2010). Following you home from school: a critical review and synthesis of research on cyberbullying victimization. Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 277–e287.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2009.11.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Torrecillas, L. (2007). Mobile phone addiction in teenagers may cause server psychological disorder. Medical Studies, 14(3), 11–13.Google Scholar
  72. Türkoğlu, S. (2013). Examination of the relationship between the problematic Internet use and cyberbullying tendencies of the adolescents’. (Master’s Thesis), Marmara University Institute of Educational Science.Google Scholar
  73. Usman, N., Alavi, M., & Shafeq, S. (2014). Relationship between Internet addiction and academic performance among foreign undergraduate students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 114, 845–851.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2009). Cyberbullying among youngsters: profiles of bullies and victims. New Media & Society, 11, 1349–1371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Walker, C. M., Sockman, B. R., & Koehn, S. (2011). An exploratory study of cyberbullying with undergraduate university students. Teaching Trends, 55(2), 31–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Walrave, M., & Heirman, W. (2011). Cyberbullying: predicting victimization and perpetration. Children & Society, 25, 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Walsh, S. P., White, K. M., Hyde, M. K., & Watson, B. (2008). Dialling and driving: factors influencing intentions to use a mobile phone while driving. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 1893–1900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Willard, N. E. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyber threats: responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress. Champaign: Research Press.Google Scholar
  79. Wong, D., Chan, H., & Cheng, C. (2014). Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among adolescents in Hong Kong. Children and Youth Services Review, 36(2014), 133–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2013.11.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Online aggressor/targets, aggressors, and targets: a comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(7), 1308–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ybarra, M. L., Espelage, D. L., & Mitchell, K. g. (2007). The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: associations with psychosocial indicators. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, 31–S41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zalaquett, C. P., Chatters, S. J. (2014). Cyberbullying in college: frequency, characteristics, and practical implications. Sage Open, January–March, 1–14.Google Scholar
  83. Zhou, Z., Tang, H., Tian, Y., Wei, H., Zhang, F., & Morrison, C. M. (2013). Cyberbullying and its risk factors among Chinese high school students. School Psychology International, 34(6), 630–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Farhan Al. Qudah
    • 1
  • Ismael Salamah Albursan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Salaheldin Farah Attallah Bakhiet
    • 2
  • Elsayed Mohammed Abu Hashem Hassan
    • 1
  • Ali A. Alfnan
    • 1
  • Suliman S. Aljomaa
    • 1
  • Mohammed Mohammed Ateik AL-khadher
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, College of EducationKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Special Education, College of EducationKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations