The Misuse and Abuse of Ophthalmic Preparations: a Scoping Review of Clinical Case Presentations and Extant Literature

  • Waed Al-Khalaileh
  • Mayyada WazaifyEmail author
  • Marie Claire Van Hout
Original Article


The emergent trend of misuse and abuse of ophthalmic drugs is a public health concern. Common ophthalmic preparations contain anticholinergics, antihistamines, decongestants, anesthetics, and vasoconstrictive and topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Misuse and abuse relates to their effect in causing euphoria, relaxation, hallucination, and reduction of depression symptoms. A scoping review of literature was conducted using Arskey and O’Malley (International Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1):9–32, 2005) framework for mapping extant literature on the current knowledge of the issue. Four themes emerged: abuse of cycloplegics and mydriatics, misuse and abuse of topical ophthalmic anesthetics, misuse of topical ophthalmic vasoconstrictive and topically applied nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and public and pharmacist views on ophthalmic drug abuse/misuse. The review underscores the complex motives for misuse and abuse, availability of ophthalmic products, self-medication practices, presence of co-morbidities, and low public awareness which harms the important role of health professionals regarding suspected misuse of these common products.


Ophthalmic preparations; abuse Misuse Community pharmacy 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Waed Al-Khalaileh
    • 1
  • Mayyada Wazaify
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Marie Claire Van Hout
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, School of PharmacyThe University of Jordan (UJ)AmmanJordan
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical SciencesAl-Ahliyya Amman UniversityAmmanJordan
  3. 3.Public Health Policy and Practice, Public Health InstituteLiverpool John Moore’s University (LJMU)LiverpoolUK

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