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Modeling permanent strains of granular soil under cyclic loading with variable confining pressure

  • Qi Sun
  • Quanyang DongEmail author
  • Yuanqiang Cai
  • Jun Wang
Research Paper
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

Previous experimental studies showed that variable confining pressure (VCP) promoted the development of permanent strains of granular soils in most cases and indicated VCP should not be ignored. However, existing empirical formulas do not fully account for the effect of VCP on permanent strains. Therefore, three series of cyclic triaxial tests with constant confining pressure (CCP) and VCP are performed on saturated sand at three relative densities. These tests aim at investigating the influential factors which could reflect the effect of VCP on permanent strains and should be considered in establishing the empirical formula. Test results show that an increasing initial void ratio has great effect on the permanent strains of sand. The permanent strains increase with an increase in the stress ratio of maximum deviatoric stress to average confining pressure \({{q^{\hbox{max} } } \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {{q^{\hbox{max} } } {\sigma_{3}^{\text{av}} }}} \right. \kern-0pt} {\sigma_{3}^{\text{av}} }}\) and the length of stress path L in both CCP and VCP tests. Based on that, a four-parameter equation considering the initial void ratio, stress ratio, length of stress path, and number of loading cycles is proposed to predict the permanent strains under cyclic loading with VCP. Comparison between the measured and predicted permanent strains shows that the equation can well capture the permanent strain response in tests with CCP and VCP.

Keywords

Cyclic loading Granular soil Permanent strain Variable confining pressure 

List of symbols

CCP

Constant confining pressure

Drc

Relative density after consolidation

F(e)

Function of void ratio

L

Length of stress path

N

Number of loading cycles

pa

Reference stress

pampl

Amplitude of mean principal stress

pav

Average mean principal stress

pmax

Maximum mean principal stress

pmin

Minimum mean principal stress

qampl

Amplitude of deviatoric stress

qav

Average deviatoric stress

qcyc

Cyclic deviatoric stress

qmax

Maximum deviatoric stress

qmin

Minimum deviatoric stress

VCP

Variable confining pressure

α1, α2, α3, and α4

Parameters of the equation

\(\varepsilon_{\text{a}}^{\text{p}}\)

Axial permanent strain

ηampl

Inclination of stress path

\(\sigma_{3}^{\text{ampl}}\)

Amplitude of confining pressure

\(\sigma_{3}^{\text{av}}\)

Average confining pressure

\(\sigma_{3}^{\text{cyc}}\)

Cyclic confining pressure

Notes

Acknowledgements

The work presented in this paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 51608394, 51508417, and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Nos. LY18E080030 and LY19E080021. These financial supports are gratefully acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, the Key Laboratory of Engineering and Technology for Soft Soil Foundation and Tideland Reclamation of Zhejiang ProvinceWenzhou UniversityWenzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Research Center of Coastal and Urban Geotechnical EngineeringZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Civil Engineering and ArchitectureZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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