Advertisement

The influence of the degree of saturation on compaction-grouted soil nails in sand

  • Xinyu Ye
  • Shanyong Wang
  • Qiong Wang
  • Scott William Sloan
  • Daichao Sheng
Research Paper
  • 136 Downloads

Abstract

A series of large-scale model tests was conducted on compaction-grouted soil nails to study the influence of the degree of saturation on the soil response to compaction grouting and pull-out. The experimental results show that the initial degree of saturation of the soil strongly influences the grout injectability, thus the formed diameter of grout bulb. Subsequently, the diameter of the grout bulb alters the pull-out force, with larger grout bulbs generating higher pull-out forces and exhibiting greater hardening behaviour. Interestingly, the initial pull-out forces are the same for the same grouting pressure, regardless of the initial degree of saturation and the subsequently grout bulb. In addition, some of the main factors influencing the pressure grouting and pull-out of the soil nail, as the initial degree of saturation varies, are as follows. First, the variations in the soil pressure and density with the initial degree of saturation are similar to that of the volume of grout injected, and the compression of the soil induced by pressure grouting exhibits a similar evolution with the initial degree of saturation at different locations. Second, the initial degree of saturation of the soil sample plays a dominant role in the change in suction during pressure grouting and pull-out of soil nail. Third, the horizontal soil pressure derived from the pull-out of soil nail propagates closely in the soil sample of lower initial degree of saturation. The vertical soil pressure induced by the vertical soil dilation and squeezing effect varies in accidence with the initial degree of saturation and the grout bulb.

Keywords

Compaction grouting Degree of saturation Densification Pull-out force Soil pressure 

Notes

Funding

Funding was provided by ARC Discovery Project grant (Grant No. DP140100509).

References

  1. 1.
    Ajalloeian R, Yu HS, Allman MA (1996) Physical and mechanical properties of Stockton Beach sand. In: Proceedings of the 7th Australia New Zealand conference on geomechanics: geomechanics in a changing world: conference proceedings, ACT: Institution of Engineers, Australia, pp 60–65Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chu LM (2003) Study on the interface shear strength of soil nailing in completely decomposed granite (CDG) soil. M.Phil. thesis, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ebrahimnezhad Sadigh E, Mojtahedi MA (2017) Stabilization of deep excavation in loose fill using soil nail wall. In: Proceedings of the 2nd World Congress on civil, structural, and environmental engineering, Barcelona, Spain, 2–4 July 2017Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gurpersaud N, Vanapalli SK, Sivathalayan S (2010) Influence of suction on the pull-out capacity of grouted soil nails. In: Proceedings of the 63rd Canadian Geotechnical Conference, Calgary, AB, pp 1748–1755Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gurpersaud N, Vanapalli SK, Sivathalayan S (2010) Semiempirical method for estimation of pullout capacity of grouted soil nails in saturated and unsaturated soil environments. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 139(11):1934–1943CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hong CY, Yin JH, Pei HF, Zhou WH (2013) Experimental study on the pullout resistance of pressure-grouted soil nails in the field. Can Geotech J 50(7):693–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hossain MA, Yin JH (2015) Dilatancy and strength of an unsaturated soil–cement interface in direct shear tests. Int J Geomech 15(5):04014081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Junaideen SM, Tham LG, Law KT, Lee CF, Yue ZQ (2004) Laboratory study of soil-nail interaction in loose, completely decomposed granite. Can Geotech J 41(2):274–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leal-Vaca JC, Gallegos-Fonseca G, Rojas-Gonzalez E (2012) The decrease of the strength of unsaturated silty sand. Ing Investig Technol XIII(4):393–402Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li J, Tham LG, Junaideen SM, Yue ZQ, Lee CF (2008) Loose fill slope stabilization with soil nails: full-scale test. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 134(3):277–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Likos WJ, Wayllace A, Godt J, Lu N (2012) Modified direct shear apparatus for unsaturated sands at low suction and stress. Geotech Test J 33(4):286–298Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Powell GE, Watkins AT (1990) Improvement of marginally stable existing slopes by soil nailing in Hong Kong. Proc Int Reinf Soil Conf, Glasgow, pp 241–247Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pradhan B (2003) Study of pullout behaviour of soil nails in completely decomposed granite fill. M.Phil. thesis, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pradhan B, Tham LG, Yue ZQ, Junaideen SM, Lee CF (2006) Soil-nail pullout interaction in loose fill materials. Int J Geomech 6(4):238–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Santhosh Kumar TG, Abraham BM, Sridharan A, Jose BT (2011) Bearing capacity improvement of loose sandy foundation soils through grouting. Int J Eng Res Appl 1(3):1026–1033Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Seo HJ, Jeong KH, Choi H, Lee IN (2012) Pullout resistance increase of soil nailing induced by pressurized grouting. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 138(5):604–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Su LJ, Chan TCF, Shiu YK, Cheung T, Yin JH (2007) Influence of degree of saturation on soil nail pull-out resistance in compacted completely decomposed granite fill. Can Geotech J 44(11):1314–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Su LJ, Chan TCF, Yin JH, Shiu YK, Chiu SL (2008) Influence of overburden pressure on soil nail pull-out resistance in a compacted fill. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 134(9):1339–1347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Su LJ, Yin JH, Zhou WH (2010) Influences of overburden pressure and soil dilation on soil nail pull-out resistance. Comput Geotech 37(4):555–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang Q, Wang S, Sloan SW, Sheng D, Pakzad R (2016) Experimental investigation of pressure grouting in sand. Soils Found 56(2):161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wang SY, Wang Q, Ye XY, Sloan SW, Sheng DC (2016) Experimental study on an ideal compaction grouting into sand. In: 4th GeoChina international conference, sustainable civil infrastructures, Shandong, China, 25–27 July 2016Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang SY, Luna R, Site Onyejekwe (2016) Effect of initial consolidation condition on post-liquefaction undrained monotonic shear behavior of Mississippi River Valley silt. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 142(2):04015075-1–04015075-11Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang Q, Ye XY, Wang SY, Sloan SW, Sheng DC (2016) Effect of degree of saturation on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing. In: 3rd European conference on unsaturated soils, Paris, France, 12–14 Sept 2016Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang Q, Ye XY, Wang SY, Sloan SW, Sheng DC (2017) Development of a model test system for studying the behaviour of a compaction grouted soil nail under unsaturated conditions. Geotech Test J 40(5):776–788Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang Q, Ye XY, Wang SY, Sloan SW, Sheng DC (2017) Experimental investigation of compaction-grouted soil nails. Can Geotech J 54(12):1728–1738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang Q, Ye XY, Wang SY, Sloan SW, Sheng DC (2017) Use of photo-based 3D photogrammetry in analyzing the results of laboratory pressure grouting tests. Acta Geotech.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11440-017-0597-2 Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang SY, Liu PF, Qu TM, Fu JY (2018) Performance of the supporting structures of a single-floor three-span metro station during column-drift tunneling in dry sandy ground. J Perform Constr Facil 352(3):04018015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wu JY, Zhang ZM (2009) Evaluations of pull-out resistance of grouted soil nails. In: GeoHunan international conference, China, pp 108–114Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ye X, Wang S, Wang Q, Sloan SW, Sheng D (2017) Numerical and experimental studies of the mechanical behaviour for compaction grouted soil nails in sandy soil. Comput Geotech 90:202–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yin JH, Zhou WH (2009) Influence of grouting pressure and overburden stress on the interface resistance of a soil nail. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng 135(9):1198–1208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yin JH, Su LJ, Cheung RWM, Shiu YK, Tang C (2009) The influence of grouting pressure on the pullout resistance of soil nails in compacted completely decomposed granite fill. Geotechnique 59(2):103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinyu Ye
    • 1
  • Shanyong Wang
    • 1
  • Qiong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Scott William Sloan
    • 1
  • Daichao Sheng
    • 1
  1. 1.ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Geotechnical EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations