The influence of the degree of saturation on compaction-grouted soil nails in sand

  • Xinyu Ye
  • Shanyong Wang
  • Qiong Wang
  • Scott William Sloan
  • Daichao Sheng
Research Paper


A series of large-scale model tests was conducted on compaction-grouted soil nails to study the influence of the degree of saturation on the soil response to compaction grouting and pull-out. The experimental results show that the initial degree of saturation of the soil strongly influences the grout injectability, thus the formed diameter of grout bulb. Subsequently, the diameter of the grout bulb alters the pull-out force, with larger grout bulbs generating higher pull-out forces and exhibiting greater hardening behaviour. Interestingly, the initial pull-out forces are the same for the same grouting pressure, regardless of the initial degree of saturation and the subsequently grout bulb. In addition, some of the main factors influencing the pressure grouting and pull-out of the soil nail, as the initial degree of saturation varies, are as follows. First, the variations in the soil pressure and density with the initial degree of saturation are similar to that of the volume of grout injected, and the compression of the soil induced by pressure grouting exhibits a similar evolution with the initial degree of saturation at different locations. Second, the initial degree of saturation of the soil sample plays a dominant role in the change in suction during pressure grouting and pull-out of soil nail. Third, the horizontal soil pressure derived from the pull-out of soil nail propagates closely in the soil sample of lower initial degree of saturation. The vertical soil pressure induced by the vertical soil dilation and squeezing effect varies in accidence with the initial degree of saturation and the grout bulb.


Compaction grouting Degree of saturation Densification Pull-out force Soil pressure 



Funding was provided by ARC Discovery Project grant (Grant No. DP140100509).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinyu Ye
    • 1
  • Shanyong Wang
    • 1
  • Qiong Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Scott William Sloan
    • 1
  • Daichao Sheng
    • 1
  1. 1.ARC Centre of Excellence for Geotechnical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built EnvironmentThe University of NewcastleCallaghanAustralia
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Geotechnical and Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Geotechnical EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

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