Unusual one-way edge state in acoustic gyroscopic continuum
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Unusual one-way edge states have been observed in composite structures composed of periodic lattices loaded with gyroscopes. Here, we provide a continuum-mechanics understanding to the one-way edge state by formulating surface state equations of acoustic gyroscopic mediums with Hermite mass density tensor. We discover that the unidirectional edge effect arises from nontrivial off-diagonal components of Hermite densities, which causes the symmetric breaking of surface wave propagation towards forward and backward directions. Theoretical predictions on the velocity and decay length of surface waves coincide excellently with numerical simulations. The unidirectional edge state in a two-interface gyroscopic medium is also analyzed. Due to the rotational symmetry in geometry, the unidirectional edge state on one interface is able to prevent itself from the coupling to surface waves on the other interface regardless of the slab thickness. With these anomalous effects, surface waves residing on gyroscopic mediums can flow around the edge defects without back-scatterings, or can be split into two beams of equal energy magnitudes. Our findings may make a bridge that would help to reach the design of non-reciprocal composite materials via an effective medium approach.
Keywordsgyroscopic medium one-way edge state quantum Hall effect