Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

One-dimensional/three-dimensional analysis of transient cavitating flow in a venturi tube with special emphasis on cavitation excited pressure fluctuation prediction

  • 43 Accesses


The large eddy simulation (LES) method is used to simulate cavitating flow in a venturi tube. The simulated results agree fairly well with the experimental data. To quantitatively describe the relationship between cavitation evolution and excited pressure fluctuation in the venturi tube, a modified prediction model is proposed and its accuracy is verified by the LES results. Based on the original one-dimensional model for the external cavitating flow around a hydrofoil, this model is corrected according to the internal cavitating flow characteristics in the venturi tube. The results show that the original one-dimensional model ignores the choking effect of cavitating flow, which is obvious in a venturi tube with a narrow flow channel, thus leading to an inaccurate prediction of pressure fluctuation in the venturi tube. The modified model can significantly overcome its deficiencies and improve the accuracy of the pressure fluctuation prediction, providing a theoretical basis and guidance for engineering application to controlling the pressure fluctuation in a venturi tube or for other internal flows.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1

    Franc J P, Michel J M. Fundamentals of cavitation. Fluid Mech Appl, 2004, 76: 1–46

  2. 2

    Long X P, Cheng H Y, Ji B, et al. Large eddy simulation and Euler-Lagrangian coupling investigation of the transient cavitating turbulent flow around a twisted hydrofoil. Int J Multiphase Flow, 2018, 100: 41–56

  3. 3

    Ji B, Long Y, Long X P, et al. Large eddy simulation of turbulent attached cavitating flow with special emphasis on large scale structures of the hydrofoil wake and turbulence-cavitation interactions. J Hydrodyn, 2017, 29: 27–39

  4. 4

    Brinkhorst S, Lavante E V, Wendt G. Experimental and numerical investigation of the cavitation-induced choked flow in a herschel venturi-tube. Flow Measurement Instrumentation, 2017, 54: 56–67

  5. 5

    Long X P, Yao H, Zhao J. Investigation on mechanism of critical cavitating flow in liquid jet pumps under operating limits. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2009, 52: 2415–2420

  6. 6

    Long X P, Wang J, Zhang J Q, et al. Experimental investigation of the cavitation characteristics of jet pump cavitation reactors with special emphasis on negative flow ratios. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci, 2018, 96: 33–42

  7. 7

    Vabre A, Gmar M, Lazaro D, et al. Synchrotron ultra-fast X-ray imaging of a cavitating flow in a venturi profile. Nucl Instruments Methods Phys Res Sect A, 2009, 607: 215–217

  8. 8

    Gągol M, Przyjazny A, Boczkaj G. Wastewater treatment by means of advanced oxidation processes based on cavitation—A Review. Chem Eng J, 2018, 338: 599–627

  9. 9

    Terán Hilares R, Ramos L, da Silva S S, et al. Hydrodynamic cavitation as a strategy to enhance the efficiency of lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. Critical Rev Biotech, 2018, 38: 483–493

  10. 10

    Wang Y G, Zhao L Y, Deng C, et al. Numerical simulation of cavitation effect of the composite cavitation generator based on the orifice plate and venturi tube (in Chinese). Environ Eng, 2012, 30: 458–460

  11. 11

    Rodio M G, Congedo P M. Robust analysis of cavitating flows in the Venturi tube. Eur J Mech — B/Fluids, 2014, 44: 88–99

  12. 12

    Yan H J, Wang Z J, Chen Y. High-speed photography analysis on cavitation of venturi injector (in Chinese). J IRRIG Drain E-ASCE, 2014, 32: 901–905

  13. 13

    Farshi Fasih H, Ghassemi H. Experimental evaluation of cavitating venturi as a passive flow controller in different sizes. In: ASME 2010 10th Biennial Conference on Engineering Systems Design and Analysis. Yeditepe University, 2010

  14. 14

    Abdulaziz A M. Performance and image analysis of a cavitating process in a small type venturi. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci, 2014, 53: 40–48

  15. 15

    Long X P. Experimental investigation of the instability of cavitation in veturi tube under different cavitation stage. J Mech Eng, 2018, 54: 209–215

  16. 16

    Wang C B, Wang M, Yu Y Y, et al. CFD simulation of venturi tube hydraulic cavitation (in Chinese). Pipeline Tech and Equ, 2013, 1: 10–12

  17. 17

    Li B M, Liu H L, Zhang N N, et al. Numerical simulation of venturi tube hydraulic cavitation generator (in Chinese). Oil Gas Field Eng, 2008, 27: 14

  18. 18

    Coutier D O, Reboud J L, Delannoy Y. Numerical simulation of the unsteady behavior of cavitating flows. Int J Numer Meth Fluids, 2003, 42: 527–548

  19. 19

    Coutier D O, Vabre A, Hocevar M, et al. Investigation of velocity in cavitating flow by ultrafast X-ray imaging. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery. Honolulu, USA, 2010

  20. 20

    Ishimoto J, Kamijo K. Numerical simulation of cavitating flow of liquid helium in venturi channel. Cryogenics, 2003, 43: 9–17

  21. 21

    Barre S, Rolland J, Boitel G, et al. Experiments and modeling of cavitating flows in venturi: Attached sheet cavitation. Eur J Mech — B/Fluids, 2009, 28: 444–464

  22. 22

    He Z X, Chen Y H, Leng X Y, et al. Experimental visualization and LES investigations on cloud cavitation shedding in a rectangular nozzle orifice. Int Commun Heat Mass, 2016, 76: 108–116

  23. 23

    Stutz B, Reboud J L. Experiments on unsteady cavitation. Exp Fluids, 1997, 22: 191–198

  24. 24

    Stutz B, Reboud J L. Two-phase flow structure of sheet cavitation. Phys Fluids, 1997, 9: 3678–3686

  25. 25

    Sato K, Taguchi Y, Hayashi S. High speed observation of periodic cavity behavior in a convergent-divergent nozzle for cavitating water jet. J Flow Control Measure Visual, 2013, 01: 102–107

  26. 26

    Sayyaadi H. Instability of the cavitating flow in a venturi reactor. Fluid Dyn Res, 2010, 42: 055503

  27. 27

    Fu Y, Zhang X D. Numerical simulation of bubble dynamics in venturi cavitation reactor (in Chinese). Chem Eng Equip, 2007, 2: 4–7

  28. 28

    Long Y, Long X P, Ji B, et al. Verification and validation of Large Eddy Simulation of attached cavitating flow around a Clark-Y hydrofoil. Int J Multiphase Flow, 2019, 115: 93–107

  29. 29

    Tang H, Bi Q C. Experimental study of cavitation in venturi (in Chinese). J Rocket Propul, 2015, 41: 54–60

  30. 30

    Pham T M, Larrarte F, Fruman D H. Investigation of unsteady sheet cavitation and cloud cavitation mechanisms. J Fluids Eng, 1999, 121: 289–296

  31. 31

    Long X P, Zhang J Q, Wang J, et al. Experimental investigation of the global cavitation dynamic behavior in a venturi tube with special emphasis on the cavity length variation. Int J Multiphase Flow, 2017, 89: 290–298

  32. 32

    Wang J, Xu S J, Cheng H Y, et al. Experimental investigation of cavity length pulsation characteristics of jet pumps during limited operation stage. Energy, 2018, 163: 61–73

  33. 33

    Callenaere M, Franc J P, Michel J M, et al. The cavitation instability induced by the development of a re-entrant jet. J Fluid Mech, 2001, 444: 223–256

  34. 34

    Leroux J B, Coutier-Delgosha O, Astolfi J A. A joint experimental and numerical study of mechanisms associated to instability of partial cavitation on two-dimensional hydrofoil. Phys Fluids, 2005, 17: 052101

  35. 35

    Reisman G E, Wang Y C, Brennen C E. Observations of shock waves in cloud cavitation. J Fluid Mech, 1998, 355: 255–283

  36. 36

    Kjeldsen M, Arndt R E A, Effertz M. Spectral characteristics of sheet/cloud cavitation. J Fluids Eng, 2000, 122: 481

  37. 37

    Ji B, Luo X W, Arndt R E A, et al. Large eddy simulation and theoretical investigations of the transient cavitating vortical flow structure around a NACA66 hydrofoil. Int J Multiphase Flow, 2015, 68: 121–134

  38. 38

    Leroux J B, Astolfi J A, Billard J Y. An experimental study of unsteady partial cavitation. J Fluids Eng, 2004, 126: 94–101

  39. 39

    Long X, Cheng H, Ji B, et al. Numerical investigation of attached cavitation shedding dynamics around the Clark-Y hydrofoil with the FBDCM and an integral method. Ocean Eng, 2017, 137: 247–261

  40. 40

    Stutz B, Legoupil S. X-ray measurements within unsteady cavitation. Exp Fluids, 2003, 35: 130–138

  41. 41

    Chen G H, Wang G Y, Hu C L, et al. Combined experimental and computational investigation of cavitation evolution and excited pressure fluctuation in a convergent—divergent channel. Int J Multiphase Flow, 2015, 72: 133–140

  42. 42

    Wang J, Zhang J Q, Ji B, et al. The experiment of cavity cloud and pressure fluctuation in venturi tube (in Chinese). In: Proceedings of the Chinese Mechanics Conference. Beijing, 2017

  43. 43

    Germano M, Piomelli U, Moin P, et al. A dynamic subgrid-scale eddy viscosity model. Phys Fluids, 1991, 3: 1760–1765

  44. 44

    Roohi E, Pendar M R, Rahimi A. Simulation of three-dimensional cavitation behind a disk using various turbulence and mass transfer models. Appl Math Model, 2016, 40: 542–564

  45. 45

    Nicoud F, Ducros F. Subgrid-scale stress modelling based on the square of the velocity gradient tensor. Flow Turbulence Combust, 1999, 62: 183–200

  46. 46

    Zwart P J, Gerber A G, Belamri T. A two-phase flow model for predicting cavitation dynamics. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Multiphase Flow. Yokohama, 2004

  47. 47

    Kubota A, Kato H, Yamaguchi H, et al. Unsteady structure measurement of cloud cavitation on a foil section using conditional sampling technique. J Fluids Eng, 1989, 111: 204–210

  48. 48

    Kubota A, Kato H, Yamaguchi H. A new modelling of cavitating flows: A numerical study of unsteady cavitation on a hydrofoil section. J Fluid Mech, 1992, 240: 59–96

  49. 49

    Huang B, Wang G Y, Zhao Y, et al. Physical and numerical investigation on transient cavitating flows. Sci China Tech Sci, 2013, 56: 2207–2218

  50. 50

    Zhao Y, Wang G Y, Huang B, et al. Lagrangian investigations of vortex dynamics in time-dependent cloud cavitating flows. Heat Mass Transfer, 2016, 93: 167–174

  51. 51

    Ji B, Luo X W, Wu Y L, et al. Numerical investigation of three-dimensional cavitation evolution and excited pressure fluctuations around a twisted hydrofoil. J Mech Sci Technol, 2014, 28: 2659–2668

  52. 52

    Cheng H Y, Li F Y, Xu M S, et al. Unsteady cavitating flow around a hydrofoil: Comparison of the standard k-epsilon model and a modified PANS. In: Proceedings of the Second Conference of Global Chinese Scholars on Hydrodynamics. Wuxi, 2016

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to XinPing Long.

Additional information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51679169, 11472197). The numerical calculations in this paper have been done on the supercomputing system at the Supercomputing Center of Wuhan University.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wang, L., Ji, B., Cheng, H. et al. One-dimensional/three-dimensional analysis of transient cavitating flow in a venturi tube with special emphasis on cavitation excited pressure fluctuation prediction. Sci. China Technol. Sci. 63, 223–233 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-019-9556-6

Download citation


  • venturi tube
  • LES
  • modified model
  • cavitation
  • pressure fluctuation