Advertisement

Degradation and mineralization of 2-chlorophenol in a single-stage anaerobic fixed-bed bioreactor

  • YiKun Geng
  • ZhengHao Li
  • Li YuanEmail author
  • XinRong Pan
  • GuoPing ShengEmail author
Article
  • 10 Downloads

Abstract

Chlorophenols (CPs) have drawn great attention due to their high toxicity and ubiquitous presence in the environment. However, the practical application of anaerobic biodegradation to remove CPs is limited by low degradation rate and incomplete mineralization. This work aims to apply a single-stage anaerobic fixed-bed bioreactor (AnFBR) for complete anaerobic dechlorination and mineralization of CPs. Results showed that 2-CP removal efficiency of 99.4%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 93.0%, and methane yield of 0.22 L-CH4/g-COD could be obtained for a wide range of 2-CP loading rates (3.6–18.2 mmol L−1 d−1). Nearly complete anaerobic mineralization of 2-CP was achieved even in the absence of co-substrates, thereby greatly reducing the operation cost. This may be partly related to the attached-growth microorganisms in AnFBR, allowing a higher biomass concentration and longer biomass retention time for enhanced 2-CP removal. Moreover, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggests that the AnFBR harbored the potential dechlorinators (e.g., Anaeromyxobacter), phenol-degrading microbes (e.g., Comamonas and Syntrophobacter), and methanogens (e.g., Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta) after acclimation, which could cooperate effectively for 2-CP dechlorination and mineralization. Based on the identified intermediates, the possible mineralization pathway of 2-CP was proposed. These findings should be valuable to facilitate the engineering applications of AnFBRs for removing CPs from wastewater.

Keywords

anaerobic fixed-bed bioreactor chlorophenols degradation pathway intermediates mineralization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Olaniran A O, Igbinosa E O. Chlorophenols and other related derivatives of environmental concern: Properties, distribution and microbial degradation processes. Chemosphere, 2011, 83: 1297–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Czaplicka M. Sources and transformations of chlorophenols in the natural environment. Sci Total Environ, 2004, 322: 21–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vlastos D, Antonopoulou M, Konstantinou I. Evaluation of toxicity and genotoxicity of 2-chlorophenol on bacteria, fish and human cells. Sci Total Environ, 2016, 551–552: 649–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bello D, Trasar-Cepeda C. Extraction and quantification of chlorophenolate molecules in soils spiked with 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. Sci Total Environ, 2018, 616–617: 179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Peng S, Tang Z, Jiang W, et al. Mechanism and performance for adsorption of 2-chlorophenol onto zeolite with surfactant by one-step process from aqueous phase. Sci Total Environ, 2017, 581–582: 550–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yuan J, Wu Q, Zhang P, et al. Synthesis of indium borate and its application in photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol. Environ Sci Tech, 2012, 46: 2330–2336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mu Y, Ai Z, Zhang L. Phosphate shifted oxygen reduction pathway on Fe@Fe2O3 core-shell nanowires for enhanced reactive oxygen species generation and aerobic 4-chlorophenol degradation. Environ Sci Tech, 2017, 51: 8101–8109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li C X, Wang Y J, Chen C B, et al. Interactions between chlorophenols and peroxymonosulfate: pH dependency and reaction pathways. Sci Total Environ, 2019, 664: 133–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kojima Y, Fukuta T, Yamada T, et al. Catalytic wet oxidation of o-chlorophenol at mild temperatures under alkaline conditions. Water Res, 2005, 39: 29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin Q, Wang Z, Ma S, et al. Evaluation of dissipation mechanisms by Lolium perenne L, and Raphanus sativus for pentachlorophenol (PCP) in copper co-contaminated soil. Sci Total Environ, 2006, 368: 814–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Martínez-Jardines M, Martínez-Hernández S, Texier A C, et al. 2-chlorophenol consumption by cometabolism in nitrifying SBR reactors. Chemosphere, 2018, 212: 41–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wang Y K, Pan X R, Sheng G P, et al. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment. Chemosphere, 2015, 140: 79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhao J, Chen X, Bao L, et al. Correlation between microbial diversity and toxicity of sludge treating synthetic wastewater containing 4-chlorophenol in sequencing batch reactors. Chemosphere, 2016, 153: 138–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moussavi G, Ghodrati S, Mohseni-Bandpei A. The biodegradation and cod removal of 2-chlorophenol in a granular anoxic baffled reactor. J Biotech, 2014, 184: 111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cho S Y, Kwean O S, Yang J W, et al. Identification of the upstream 4-chlorophenol biodegradation pathway using a recombinant monooxygenase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6. Bioresource Tech, 2017, 245: 1800–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kwean O S, Cho S Y, Yang J W, et al. 4-chlorophenol biodegradation facilitator composed of recombinant multi-biocatalysts immobilized onto montmorillonite. Bioresource Tech, 2018, 259: 268–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Puyol D, Monsalvo V M, Sanchis S, et al. Comparison of bioaugmented EGSB and GAC-FBB reactors and their combination with aerobic SBR for the abatement of chlorophenols. Chem Eng J, 2015, 259: 277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khan N, Khan M D, Ansari M Y, et al. Bio-electrodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by mixed microbial culture in dual chambered microbial fuel cells. J Biosci Bioeng, 2019, 127: 353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bajaj M, Gallert C, Winter J. Anaerobic biodegradation of high strength 2-chlorophenol-containing synthetic wastewater in a fixed bed reactor. Chemosphere, 2008, 73: 705–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chang C C, Tseng S K, Chang C C, et al. Reductive dechlorination of 2-chlorophenol in a hydrogenotrophic, gas-permeable, silicone membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Tech, 2003, 90: 323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Majumder P S, Gupta S K. Degradation of 4-chlorophenol in UASB reactor under methanogenic conditions. Bioresource Tech, 2008, 99: 4169–4177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Majumder P S, Gupta S K. Effect of carbon sources and shock loading on the removal of chlorophenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactors. Bioresource Tech, 2008, 99: 2930–2937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang S G, Liu X W, Zhang H Y, et al. Aerobic granulation for 2,4-dichlorophenol biodegradation in a sequencing batch reactor. Chemosphere, 2007, 69: 769–775CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Puyol D, Mohedano A F, Sanz J L, et al. Comparison of UASB and EGSB performance on the anaerobic biodegradation of 2,4-di-chlorophenol. Chemosphere, 2009, 76: 1192–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Majumder P S, Gupta S K. Removal of chlorophenols in sequential anaerobic-aerobic reactors. Bioresource Tech, 2007, 98: 118–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Li Z, Inoue Y, Suzuki D, et al. Long-term anaerobic mineralization of pentachlorophenol in a continuous-flow system using only lactate as an external nutrient. Environ Sci Tech, 2013, 47: 1534–1541Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yousefzadeh S, Ahmadi E, Gholami M, et al. A comparative study of anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor for biological removal of diethyl phthalate from wastewater: A performance, kinetic, biogas, and metabolic pathway study. Biotech Biofuels, 2017, 10: 139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Geng Y K, Wang Y, Pan X R, et al. Electricity generation and in situ phosphate recovery from enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludge by electrodialysis membrane bioreactor. Bioresource Tech, 2018, 247: 471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yuan L, Li Z H, Zhang M Q, et al. Mercury/silver resistance genes and their association with antibiotic resistance genes and microbial community in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Sci Total Environ, 2019, 657: 1014–1022CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Martínez-Gutiérrez E, Texier A C, de María Cuervo-López F, et al. Consumption of 2-chlorophenol using anaerobic sludge: Physiological and kinetic analysis. Appl Biochem Biotech, 2014, 174: 2171–2180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sanford R A, Cole J R, Tiedje J M. Characterization and description of Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans gen. nov., sp. nov., an aryl-halorespiring facultative anaerobic myxobacterium. Appl Environ Micro-Biol, 2002, 68: 893–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Azwani F, Suzuki K, Honjyo M, et al. Draft genome sequence of comamonas testosteroni R2, consisting of aromatic compound degradation genes for phenol hydroxylase. Genome Announc, 2017, 5: e00875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    de Bok F A M, Plugge C M, Stams A J M. Interspecies electron transfer in methanogenic propionate degrading consortia. Water Res, 2004, 38: 1368–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Smith K S, Ingram-Smith C. Methanosaeta, the forgotten methanogen? Trends MicroBiol, 2007, 15: 150–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Graber J R, Breznak J A. Physiology and nutrition of treponema primitia, an H2/CO2-acetogenic spirochete from termite hindguts. Appl Environ MicroBiol, 2004, 70: 1307–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Chen X, Ottosen L D M, Kofoed M V W. How low can you go: Methane production of Methanobacterium congolense at low CO2 concentrations. Front Bioeng Biotech, 2019, 7Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Martínez-Gutiérrez E, González-Márquez H, Martínez-Hernández S, et al. Effect of phenol and acetate addition on 2-chlorophenol consumption by a denitrifying sludge. Environ Tech, 2012, 33: 1375–1382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rao N. Photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol: A study of kinetics, intermediates and biodegradability. J Hazard Mater, 2003, 101: 301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    He Z, Wang C, Wang H, et al. Increasing the catalytic activities of iodine doped titanium dioxide by modifying with tin dioxide for the photodegradation of 2-chlorophenol under visible light irradiation. J Hazard Mater, 2011, 189: 595–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Poulopoulos S G, Nikolaki M, Karampetsos D, et al. Photochemical treatment of 2-chlorophenol aqueous solutions using ultraviolet radiation, hydrogen peroxide and photo-Fenton reaction. J Hazard Mater, 2008, 153: 582–587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tu Y, Xiong Y, Tian S, et al. Catalytic wet air oxidation of 2-chlorophenol over sewage sludge-derived carbon-based catalysts. J Hazard Mater, 2014, 276: 88–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chen D, Shen J, Jiang X, et al. Simultaneous debromination and mineralization of bromophenol in an up-flow electricity-stimulated anaerobic system. Water Res, 2019, 157: 8–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAS Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Department of Applied ChemistryUniversity of Science and Technology of ChinaHefeiChina

Personalised recommendations