Advertisement

Thermal evaluation of the injectable liquid metal bone cement in orthopedic treatment

  • QingLei Zhang
  • YuChen Yao
  • JianYe Gao
  • XiaoHu Yang
  • PengJu Zhang
  • ZhongShan DengEmail author
  • Jing Liu
Article
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

The thermophysical properties of bone cement are important parameters for its application in the orthopedic treatment. This article focused on the thermal evaluation of the low-melting-point metal (BiInSn alloy), which has been proved to be an excellent bone cement. Firstly, the basic thermophysical properties of BiInSn alloys with different melting points were measured. Secondly, 15 fresh porcine femurs placed in the saline bath, bone cements with different melting points and amounts were injected into the bone cavities, respectively. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperature changes of the bone-cement interface and peripheral bone tissue. The possibility of thermal necrosis was evaluated. Moreover, a three-dimensional human knee model was built to numerically assess the effects of thermal parameters, such as melting point and latent heat on tissue temperature distribution. All the experimental and numerical results implied the heat distribution in the tissue depended on the thermal performances of liquid metal bone cement (LMBC). For LMBC of the same melting point, with increased amounts, the damage to the bone tissue is more severe, while for the same amount of different melting point LMBCs, with the higher melting point, which will lead to more serious damage to the tissue. Also, higher latent heat of LMBC has distinct longer solidification process, which may cause irreversible damage to surrounding tissues. Therefore, in the future, for different clinical surgery needs, the appropriate liquid metal bone cement can be obtained by adjusting the thermal parameters.

Keywords

liquid metal bone cement thermal evaluation phase transition orthopedic treatment numerical simulation thermal parameters 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

This work was supported by the Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KFJ-STS-QYZD-078), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51890893).

References

  1. 1.
    Lewis G. Injectable bone cements for use in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: State-of-the-art review. J Biomed Mater Res, 2006, 76B: 456–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saha S, Pal S. Mechanical properties of bone cement: A review. J Biomed Mater Res, 1984, 18: 435–462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robo C, Hulsart-Billström G, Nilsson M, et al. In vivo response to a low-modulus pmma bone cement in an ovine model. Acta Biomater, 2018, 72: 362–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fukushima H, Hashimoto Y, Yoshiya S, et al. Conduction analysis of cement interface temperature in total knee arthroplasty. Kobe J Med Sci, 2002, 48: 63–72Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Churchill R S, Boorman R S, Fehringer E V, et al. Glenoid cementing may generate sufficient heat to endanger the surrounding bone. Clinical Orthopaedics Related Res, 2004, 419: 76–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kurata K, Matsushita J, Furuno A, et al. Assessment of thermal damage in total knee arthroplasty using an osteocyte injury model. J Orthop Res, 2017, 35: 2799–2807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bostrom M P G, Lane J M. Future directions. Spine, 1997, 22: 38S–42SCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bou-Francis A, López A, Persson C, et al. Assessing cement injection behaviour in cancellous bone: An in vitro study using flow models. J Biomater Appl, 2014, 29: 582–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ciapetti G, Granchi D, Cenni E, et al. Cytotoxic effect of bone cements in hl-60 cells: Distinction between apoptosis and necrosis. J Biomed Mater Res, 2000, 52: 338–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoess A, López A, Engqvist H, et al. Comparison of a quasi-dynamic and a static extraction method for the cytotoxic evaluation of acrylic bone cements. Mater Sci Eng-C, 2016, 62: 274–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lai P L, Tai C L, Chen L H, et al. Cement leakage causes potential thermal injury in vertebroplasty. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2011, 12: 116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Puska M A, Lassila L V J, Aho A J, et al. Exothermal characteristics and release of residual monomers from fiber-reinforced oligomermodified acrylic bone cement. J Biomater Appl, 2005, 20: 51–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li C, Mason J, Yakimicki D. Thermal characterization of pmma-based bone cement curing. J Mater Sci-Mater Med, 2004, 15: 85–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ormsby R, McNally T, Mitchell C, et al. Influence of multiwall carbon nanotube functionality and loading on mechanical properties of pmma/mwcnt bone cements. J Mater Sci-Mater Med, 2010, 21: 2287–2292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leeson M C, Lippitt S B. Thermal aspects of the use of polymethylmethacrylate in large metaphyseal defects in bone-A clinical review and laboratory study. Clin Orthop Relat R, 1993, 295: 239–245Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Miola M, Laviano F, Gerbaldo R, et al. Composite bone cements for hyperthermia: Modeling and characterization of magnetic, calorimetric and in vitro heating properties. Ceramics Int, 2017, 43: 4831–4840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yi L, Jin C, Wang L, et al. Liquid-solid phase transition alloy as reversible and rapid molding bone cement. Biomaterials, 2014, 35: 9789–9801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eriksson A R, Albrektsson T. Temperature threshold levels for heatinduced bone tissue injury: A vital-microscopic study in the rabbit. J Prosthetic Dentistry, 1983, 50: 101–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang L, Liu J. Liquid phase 3d printing for quickly manufacturing conductive metal objects with low melting point alloy ink. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57: 1721–1728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Xiao J, He Z Z, Yang Y, et al. Investigation on three-dimensional temperature field of human knee considering anatomical structure. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2011, 54: 1851–1860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Xue X, He Z Z, Liu J. Computational study of thermal effects of large blood vessels in human knee joint. Comput Biol Med, 2013, 43: 63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Trobec R, Sterk M, AlMawed S, et al. Computer simulation of topical knee cooling. Comput Biol Med, 2008, 38: 1076–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang B, Moser M A J, Zhang E M, et al. A review of radiofrequency ablation: Large target tissue necrosis and mathematical modelling. Physica Medica, 2016, 32: 961–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu Y C, Chao L S. Modified effective specific heat method of solidification problems. Mater Trans, 2006, 47: 2737–2744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Yang X H, Tan S C, Ding Y J, et al. Experimental and numerical investigation of low melting point metal based pcm heat sink with internal fins. Int Commun Heat Mass Transfer, 2017, 87: 118–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lamberg P, Lehtiniemi R, Henell A M. Numerical and experimental investigation of melting and freezing processes in phase change material storage. Int J Thermal Sci, 2004, 43: 277–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Choi J, Bischof J C. Review of biomaterial thermal property measurements in the cryogenic regime and their use for prediction of equilibrium and non-equilibrium freezing applications in cryobiology. Cryobiology, 2010, 60: 52–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moelans N, Hari Kumar K C, Wollants P. Thermodynamic optimization of the lead-free solder system Bi-In-Sn-Zn. J Alloys Compd, 2003, 360: 98–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mei Z Q, Holder H A, VanderPlas H A. Low-temperature solders. Hewlett-Packard J, 1996, 47: 91–98Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • QingLei Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • YuChen Yao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • JianYe Gao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • XiaoHu Yang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • PengJu Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • ZhongShan Deng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    Email author
  • Jing Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Cryo-Biomedical Engineering, Technical Institute of Physics and ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.CAS Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and ChemistryChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.School of EngineeringUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.School of Future TechnologyUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of MedicineTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations