Advertisement

Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 349–355 | Cite as

Experimental study on spray cooling under reduced pressures

  • Can Peng
  • XiangHua XuEmail author
  • YeMing Li
  • YuLong Li
  • XinGang Liang
Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Spay cooling is a complicated flow and heat transfer process affected by multi-factors among which the environmental pressure is extremely important. However the influence of pressure is not investigated sufficiently, especially the reduced pressure. In the present study, spray cooling under low initial environmental partial pressures and vapor partial pressures with R21 are investigated with a closed spray and condensation system. To study the influence of initial environmental partial pressure, different amounts of nitrogen are inflated into the vacuum flash chamber, while the vapor partial pressure is kept constant. To study the influence of vapor partial pressure, a cascade refrigerator is used to condense the vapor with different condensation temperatures so that the vapor partial pressure can be maintained or adjusted, while the initial environmental partial pressure is kept constant. The experimental results show that the spray cooling power increases monotonically with the increasing spray flow rate in the experimental range, while the cooling efficiency decreases with the increasing spray flow rate. The spray cooling power and cooling efficiency vary with the initial environmental partial pressure or the vapor partial pressure non-monotonously, which indicates there is an optimal pressure for the heat transfer performance. Besides, the mechanism of the non-monotonous variation trend is discussed based on the key aspects including flash evaporation, convection and boiling. Especially, the boiling heat transfer curve is applied to explain the trend.

Keywords

spray cooling flash evaporation reduced pressure phase change 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kang B S, Choi K J. Cooling of a heated surface with an impinging water spray. KSME Int J, 1998, 12: 734–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhou Z, Chen B, Wang R, et al. Coupling effect of hypobaric pressure and spray distance on heat transfer dynamics of R134a pulsed flashing spray cooling. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci, 2016, 70: 96–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang Y, Liu M, Liu D, et al. Experimental study on the effects of spray inclination on water spray cooling performance in non-boiling regime. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci, 2010, 34: 933–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xie N N, Hu X G, Tang D W. Experimental investigation on spray cooling in rectangular capillary micro-grooves. J Eng Therm, 2010, 31: 805–809Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Silk E A, Kim J, Kiger K. Spray cooling of enhanced surfaces: Impact of structured surface geometry and spray axis inclination. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2006, 49: 4910–4920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silk E A, Kim J, Kiger K. Impact of cubic pin finned surface structure geometry upon spray cooling heat transfer. In: Proceedings of the Asme International Electronic Packaging And Technical Conference. San Francisco, 2005Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang Z, Jiang P X, Ouyang X L, et al. Experimental investigation of spray cooling on smooth and micro-structured surfaces. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2014, 76: 366–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Rybicki J R, Mudawar I. Single-phase and two-phase cooling characteristics of upward-facing and downward-facing sprays. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2006, 49: 5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen R H, Chow L C, Navedo J E. Effects of spray characteristics on critical heat flux in subcooled water spray cooling. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2002, 45: 4033–4043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen R H, Chow L C, Navedo J E. Optimal spray characteristics in water spray cooling. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2004, 47: 5095–5099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sehmbey M S, Chow L C, Hahn O J, et al. Effect of spray characteristics on spray cooling with liquid nitrogen. J Thermophysics Heat Transfer, 1995, 9: 757–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cader T, Westra L J, Eden R C. Spray cooling thermal management for increased device reliability. IEEE Trans Device Mater Relib, 2004, 4: 605–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bostanci H, Van Ee D, Saarloos B A, et al. Spray cooling of power electronics using high temperature coolant and enhanced surface. In: Proceedings of the Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. Dearborn, 2009Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kim J. Spray cooling heat transfer: The state of the art. Int J Heat Fluid Flow, 2007, 28: 753–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Han F Y. Study on Heat Transfer Performance, Enhancement, and Surface Temperature Non-Uniformity in Spray Cooling. Dissertation for Dcotoral Degree. Heifei: University of Science and Technology of China, 2011Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jiang S, Dhir V K. Spray cooling in a closed system with different fractions of non-condensibles in the environment. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2004, 47: 5391–5406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin L, Ponnappan R. Heat transfer characteristics of spray cooling in a closed loop. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2003, 46: 3737–3746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Horacek B, Kiger K T, Kim J. Single nozzle spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2005, 48: 1425–1438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mudawar I, Bharathan D, Kelly K, et al. Two-phase spray cooling of hybrid vehicle electronics. IEEE Trans Comp Packag Technol, 2009, 32: 501–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Timothy A B, Jordan L M, Asuncion C, Shuttle orbiter active thermal control subsystem design and flight experience. SAE Technical Paper, 1991Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Golliher E, Romanin J, Kacher H,et al. Development of the compact flash evaporator system for exploration. SAE Technical Paper, 2007Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Estes K A, Mudawar I. Correlation of sauter mean diameter and critical heat flux for spray cooling of small surfaces. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 1995, 38: 2985–2996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Saury D, Harmand S, Siroux M. Experimental study of flash evaporation of a water film. Int J Heat Mass Transfer, 2002, 45: 3447–3457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Incropera F P, DeWitt D P, Bergman T L, et al. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2006Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Can Peng
    • 1
  • XiangHua Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • YeMing Li
    • 1
  • YuLong Li
    • 2
  • XinGang Liang
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Aerospace EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.School of Energy and Power EngineeringBeihang UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations