Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 9, pp 1346–1352 | Cite as

Deformation mode-determined misorientation and microstructural characteristics in rolled pure Zr sheet

  • LinJiang ChaiEmail author
  • JiYing Xia
  • Yan Zhi
  • YinNing Gou
  • LiangYu Chen
  • ZhiNan YangEmail author
  • Ning GuoEmail author


In this work, commercially pure Zr sheets were subjected to β air cooling and then rolled to different reductions (10% and 50%) at room temperature. Microstructures of both the β-air-cooled and the rolled specimens were well characterized by electron channelling contrast imaging and electron backscatter diffraction techniques, with special attentions paid to their misorientation characteristics. Results show that the β-air-cooled specimen owns a Widmanstätten structure featured by lamellar grains with typical phase transformation misorientations. The 10% rolling allows prismatic slip and tensile twinning ({11-21}<11-2-6> and {10-12}<10-11>) to be activated profusely, which produce new low-angle (~3°–5°) and high-angle (~35° and ~85°) misorientation peaks, respectively. After increasing the rolling reduction to 50%, twinning is suppressed and dislocation slip becomes the dominant deformation mode, with the lamellar grains highly elongated and aligned towards the rolling direction. Meanwhile, only one strong low-angle misorientation peak related to the prismatic slip is presented in the 50%-rolled specimen, with all other peaks disappeared. Analyses on local misorientations reveal that hardly any residual strains exist in the β-air-cooled specimen, which should be related to their sufficient relaxation during slow cooling. Residual strains introduced by 10% rolling are heterogeneously distributed near grain/twin boundaries while heavier deformation (50% rolling) produces much larger residual strains pervasively existing throughout the specimen microstructure.


pure Zr rolling misorientation twinning electron backscatter diffraction 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Duan Z G, Yang H L, Satoh Y, et al. Current status of materials development of nuclear fuel cladding tubes for light water reactors. Nucl Eng Des, 2017, 316: 131–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zinkle S J, Was G S. Materials challenges in nuclear energy. Acta Mater, 2013, 61: 735–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhou F Y, Qiu K J, Li H F, et al. Screening on binary Zr–1X (X=Ti, Nb, Mo, Cu, Au, Pd, Ag, Ru, Hf and Bi) alloys with good in vitro cytocompatibility and magnetic resonance imaging compatibility. Acta Biomater, 2013, 9: 9578–9587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daymond M R, Holt R A, Cai S, et al. Texture inheritance and variant selection through an hcp-bcc-hcp phase transformation. Acta Mater, 2010, 58: 4053–4066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hiwarkar V D, Sahoo S K, Samajdar I, et al. Defining recrystallization in pilgered Zircaloy-4: From preferred nucleation to growth inhibition. J Nucl Mater, 2011, 412: 287–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Murty K L, Charit I. Texture development and anisotropic deformation of zircaloys. Prog Nucl Energy, 2006, 48: 325–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chai L J, Luan B F, Chen B F, et al. Concurrent inheritance of microstructure and texture after slow β→a cooling of commercially pure Zr. Sci China Tech Sci, 2016, 59: 1771–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kim H G, Baek J H, Kim S D, et al. Microstructure and corrosion characteristics of Zr-1.5Nb-0.4Sn-0.2Fe-0.1Cr alloy with a β-annealing. J Nucl Mater, 2008, 372: 304–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Massih A R, Andersson T, Witt P, et al. Effect of quenching rate on the β-to-α phase transformation structure in zirconium alloy. J Nucl Mater, 2003, 322: 138–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang H L, Kano S, Matsukawa Y, et al. Effect of molybdenum on microstructures in Zr-1.2Nb alloys after β-quenching and subsequently 873 K annealing. Mater Des, 2016, 104: 355–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ammar Y B, Aoufi A, Darrieulat M. Influence of the cooling rate on the texture and the microstructure of Zircaloy-4 studied by means of a Jominy end-quench test. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2012, 556: 184–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ahmmed K F, Daymond M R, Gharghouri M A. Microstructural evaluation and crystallographic texture modification of heat-treated zirconium Excel pressure tube material. J Alloys Compd, 2016, 687: 1021–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang H L, Matsukawa Y, Kano S, et al. Investigation on microstructural evolution and hardening mechanism in dilute Zr-Nb binary alloys. J Nucl Mater, 2016, 481: 117–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yuan G H, Cao G Q, Yue Q, et al. Formation and fine-structures of nano-precipitates in ZIRLO. J Alloys Compd, 2016, 687: 451–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yang H L, Shen J J, Kano S, et al. Effects of Mo addition on precipitation in Zr-1.2Nb alloys. Mater Lett, 2015, 158: 88–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liang J L, Zhang M, Ouyang Y F, et al. Contribution on the phase equilibria in Zr-Nb-Fe system. J Nucl Mater, 2015, 466: 627–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yao M Y, Shen Y F, Li Q, et al. The effect of final annealing after β-quenching on the corrosion resistance of Zircaloy-4 in lithiated water with 0.04 M LiOH. J Nucl Mater, 2013, 435: 63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu C, Li G, Yuan F, et al. Stacking faults in Zr(Fe, Cr)2 Laves structured secondary phase particle in Zircaloy-4 alloy. Nanoscale, 2018, 10: 2249–2254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hu X Y, Zhao H L, Ni S, et al. Grain refinement and phase transition of commercial pure zirconium processed by cold rolling. Mater Charact, 2017, 129: 149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fuloria D, Kumar N, Jayaganthan R, et al. An investigation of effect of annealing at different temperatures on microstructures and bulk textures development in deformed Zircaloy-4. Mater Charact, 2017, 129: 217–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yang H L, Kano S, Matsukawa Y, et al. Study on recrystallization and correlated mechanical properties in Mo-modified Zr-Nb alloys. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2016, 661: 9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chai L J, Luan B F, Xiao D P, et al. Microstructural and textural evolution of commercially pure Zr sheet rolled at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Mater Des, 2015, 85: 296–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li M H, Ma M, Liu W C, et al. Recrystallization behavior of coldrolled Zr 702. J Nucl Mater, 2013, 433: 6–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kumar M K, Vanitha C, Samajdar I, et al. Deformation texture and microtexture developments in a cold rolled single phase hexagonal Zircaloy 2. Mater Sci Tech, 2006, 22: 331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Randle V. Grain boundary engineering: An overview after 25 years. Mater Sci Tech, 2010, 26: 253–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Watanabe T. Grain boundary engineering: Historical perspective and future prospects. J Mater Sci, 2011, 46: 4095–4115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bozzolo N, Chan L, Rollett A D. Misorientations induced by deformation twinning in titanium. J Appl Crystlogr, 2010, 43: 596–602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hu Y, Randle V. An electron backscatter diffraction analysis of misorientation distributions in titanium alloys. Scripta Mater, 2007, 56: 1051–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chai L J, Chen B F, Zhou Z M, et al. A special twin relationship or a common Burgers misorientation between a plates after β quenching in Zr alloy? Mater Charact, 2015, 104: 61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chai L J, Luan B F, Zhang M, et al. Experimental observation of 12 a variants inherited from one β grain in a Zr alloy. J Nucl Mater, 2013, 440: 377–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chai L J, Chen B F, Wang S Y, et al. Microstructural changes of Zr702 induced by pulsed laser surface treatment. Appl Surf Sci, 2016, 364: 61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zaefferer S, Elhami N N. Theory and application of electron channelling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions. Acta Mater, 2014, 75: 20–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chai L J, Wu H, Wang S Y, et al. Characterization of microstructure and hardness of a Zr-2.5Nb alloy surface-treated by pulsed laser. Mater Chem Phys, 2017, 198: 303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chai L J, Wang S Y, Wu H, et al. a→β Transformation characteristics revealed by pulsed laser-induced non-equilibrium microstructures in duplex-phase Zr alloy. Sci China Tech Sci, 2017, 60: 1255–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tomé C N, Christodoulou N, Turner P A, et al. Role of internal stresses in the transient of irradiation growth of Zircaloy-2. J Nucl Mater, 1996, 227: 237–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Crépin J, Bretheau T, Caldemaison D. Plastic deformation mechanisms of β treated zirconium. Acta Metall Mater, 1995, 43: 3709–3719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chai L J, Wang S Y, Wu H, et al. Bimodal plate structures induced by pulsed laser in duplex-phase Zr alloy. Sci China Tech Sci, 2017, 60: 587–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chun Y B, Battaini M, Davies C H J, et al. Distribution characteristics of in-grain misorientation axes in cold-rolled commercially pure titanium and their correlation with active slip modes. Metall Mat Trans A, 2010, 41: 3473–3487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Xu F, Holt R A, Daymond M R. Modeling texture evolution during uni-axial deformation of Zircaloy-2. J Nucl Mater, 2009, 394: 9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sahoo S K, Hiwarkar V D, Samajdar I, et al. Deformation twinning in zircaloy 2. Mater Sci Tech, 2010, 26: 104–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Numakura H, Minonishi Y, Koiwa M. <-1-123>{10-11}= slip in zirconium. Philos Mag A, 1991, 63: 1077–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wright S I, Nowell M M, Field D P. A review of strain analysis using electron backscatter diffraction. Microsc Microanal, 2011, 17: 316–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guo N, Li D R, Yu H B, et al. Annealing behavior of gradient structured copper and its effect on mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng-A, 2017, 702: 331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials Science and EngineeringChongqing University of TechnologyChongqingChina
  2. 2.School of ScienceJiangsu University of Science and TechnologyZhenjiangChina
  3. 3.National Engineering Research Center for Equipment and Technology of Cold Strip RollingYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  4. 4.Faculty of Materials and EnergySouthwest UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations