Science China Technological Sciences

, Volume 61, Issue 10, pp 1492–1501 | Cite as

Analysis of transmitter-side control methods in wireless EV charging systems

  • Fang LiuEmail author
  • KaiNan Chen
  • ZhengMing Zhao
  • Kai Li


The wireless electric vehicle (EV) charging system is highly safe and flexible. To reduce the weight and cost of EVs, the wireless charging system, which simplifies the structure inside an EV and utilizes the transmitter-side control method, has become popular. This study investigates the transmitter-side control methods in a wireless EV charging system. First, a universal wireless charging system is introduced, and the function of its transfer power is derived. It is observed that the transfer power can be controlled by regulating either the phase-shift angle or the DC-link voltage. Further, the influence of the control variables is studied using numerical analysis. Additionally, the corresponding control methods, namely the phase-shift angle and the DC-link voltage control, are compared by calculation and simulation. It is found that: (1) the system efficiency is low with the phase-shift control method because of the converter switching loss; (2) the dynamic response is slow with the DC-link voltage control method because of the large inertia of the inductor and capacitor; (3) both the control methods have limitations in their adjustable power range. Therefore, a combined control method is proposed, with the advantages of high system efficiency, fast dynamic response, and wide adjustable power range. Finally, experiments are performed to verify the validity of the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the proposed method. This study provides a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the transmitter-side control methods in the wireless charging system, considering the sensitivity of parameters, converter losses, system efficiency, and dynamic performance, with the dead-time effect taken into consideration. Moreover, the proposed control method can be used to realize the optimal combination of the phase-shift angle and the DC-link voltage with good dynamic performance, and it is useful for the optimal operation of the wireless charging system.


clean-energy vehicles EV charging system wireless power transfer (WPT) transmitter-side control phase-shift control DC-link voltage control combined control method 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ouyang M G. New energy vehicle research and development in China (in Chinese). Sci Tech Rev, 2016, 34: 13–20Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhao S J, Zhao F Q, Liu Z W. The current status, barriers and development strategy of new energy vehicle industry in China. In: 6th International Conference on Industrial Technology and Management. Cambridge, 2017. 96–100Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li S Q, Mi C C. Wireless power transfer for electric vehicle applications. IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron, 2015, 3: 4–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen C, Huang X L, Tan L L, et al. Electromagnetic environment and security evaluation for wireless charging of electric vehicles (in Chinese). Trans China Elect Tech Soc, 2015, 30: 61–67Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhu C B, Jiang J H, Song K. Research progress of key technologies for dynamic wireless charging of electric vehicle (in Chinese). Automat Elect Power Syst, 2017, 41: 60–72Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hui S Y R. Magnetic resonance for wireless power transfer. IEEE Power Electron Mag, 2016, 3: 14–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fang X L, Liu H, Li G Y, et al. Circuit model based design and analysis for a four-structure-switchable wireless power transfer system. Sci China Tech Sci, 2015, 58: 534–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang Q X, Zhang P C, Zhu L H, et al. Key fundamental problems and technical bottlenecks of the wireless power transmission technology (in Chinese). Trans China Elect Tech Soc, 2015, 30: 1–8Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gao D W, Wang S, Yang F Y. State of art of the wireless charging technologies for electric vehicles (in Chinese). J Automot Safety Energy, 2015, 6: 314–327Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Imura T, Okabe H, Hori Y. Basic experimental study on helical antennas of wireless power transfer for electric vehicles by using magnetic resonant couplings. In: Proceedings of Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference. Michigan, 2009. 936–940Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J2954A (WIP) wireless power transfer for light-duty plug-in/electric vehicles and alignment methodology SAE international. [online]. available.
  12. 12.
    Shen P, Ouyang M, Lu L, et al. The Co-estimation of state of charge, state of health, and state of function for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. IEEE Trans Veh Tech, 2018, 67: 92–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li Y, Wang L F, Liao C L, et al. Recursive modeling and online identification of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicle applications. Sci China Tech Sci, 2014, 57: 403–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mai R, Chen Y, Li Y, et al. Inductive power transfer for massive electric bicycles charging based on hybrid topology switching with a single inverter. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2017, 32: 5897–5906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li Z, Zhu C, Jiang J, et al. A 3-kW wireless power transfer system for sightseeing car supercapacitor charge. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2017, 32: 3301–3316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li H, Li J, Wang K, et al. A maximum efficiency point tracking control scheme for wireless power transfer systems using magnetic resonant coupling. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2015, 30: 3998–4008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zhang S, Xiong R, Zhou X. Comparison of the topologies for a hybrid energy-storage system of electric vehicles via a novel optimization method. Sci China Technol Sci, 2015, 58: 1173–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guo Y, Wang L, Zhang Y, et al. Rectifier load analysis for electric vehicle wireless charging system. IEEE Trans Ind Electron, 2018, 1–1Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liao C L, Li J F, Tao C X, et al. A review on control methods for wireless power transfer system (in Chinese). J Elect Eng, 2015, 10: 1–6Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Dai X, Li W, Zou Y, et al. Robust design optimisation for inductive power transfer systems from topology collection based on an evolutionary multi-objective algorithm. IET Power Electron, 2015, 8: 1767–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tan L L, Huang X L, Huang H, et al. Transfer efficiency optimal control of magnetic resonance coupled system of wireless power transfer based on frequency control. Sci China Tech Sci, 2011, 54: 1428–1434CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Selarka V, Shah P, Vahela D J, et al. Close loop control of three phase active front end converter using SVPWM technique. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Electrical Power and Energy Systems. Bhopalx, 2016. 339–344Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hasan N, Wang H J, Saha T, et al. A novel position sensorless power transfer control of lumped coil-based in-motion wireless power transfer systems. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition. Montreal, 2015. 586–593Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hou J, Chen Q H, Wong S C, et al. Analysis and control of series/series-parallel compensated resonant converter for contactless power transfer. IEEE J Emerg Sel Top Power Electron, 2015, 3: 124–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Zhang Y, Chen K, He F, et al. Closed-form oriented modeling and analysis of wireless power transfer system with constant-voltage source and load. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2016, 31: 3472–3481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Choi W P, Ho W C, Liu X, et al. Comparative study on power conversion methods for wireless battery charging platform, In: Proceedings of 14th International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference. Wuhan, 2010. 339–344Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nguyen B X, Vilathgamuwa D M, Foo G H B, et al. An efficiency optimization scheme for bidirectional inductive power transfer systems. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2015, 30: 6310–6319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Tan P G, He H B, Gao X P. Phase compensation, ZVS operation of wireless power transfer system based on SOGI-PLL. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition. Long Beach, 2016. 3185–3188Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wang S, Gao D W, Chen S. A new parameter adjustment procedure for the development of a ZVS double-sided LC compensated 4-coil wireless charging system. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems. Chiba, 2016. 1–6Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhong W X, Hui S Y R. Maximum energy efficiency tracking for wireless power transfer systems. IEEE Trans Power Electron, 2015, 30: 4025–4034CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations