Advertisement

Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 63, Issue 1, pp 145–156 | Cite as

Responses of water use efficiency to phenology in typical subtropical forest ecosystems—A case study in Zhejiang Province

  • Fengsheng Guo
  • Jiaxin JinEmail author
  • Bin Yong
  • Ying Wang
  • Hong Jiang
Research Paper
  • 27 Downloads

Abstract

Ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator for understanding the intimately coupled relationship between carbon and water cycles in ecosystems. Previous studies have suggested that both abiotic and biotic factors have significant effects on WUE in forest ecosystems. However, responses of WUE to phenology in the context of climate change remain poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the sensitivity and response patterns of seasonal WUE to phenology in Zhejiang Province where typical subtropical forest ecosystems are located, and discussed potential causes of the changes of the sensitivity and response patterns along different climate gradient during 2000–2014. The results of interannual partial correlation analysis showed widespread negative correlations between WUE and the start of growing season (SOS) in spring. This is because the increase in gross primary product (GPP) is larger than that of evapotranspiration (ET), resulting from an advanced SOS. The positive correlation between WUE and SOS was widely observed in summer mainly because of water stress and plant ecological strategy. The autumn WUE enhanced with the delay in the end of growing season (EOS) mainly because of the increase in GPP meanwhile the decrease or steadiness in ET, resulting from a delayed EOS. In space, the sensitivity of spring WUE to SOS significantly decreased along the radiation gradient, which might be related to strong soil evaporation in high radiation area; the sensitivity of WUE to SOS in summer showed a positive correlation with precipitation and a negative correlation with temperature, respectively, which might be attributed to the compensation of GPP to the delayed SOS and water stress caused by high temperature. The sensitivity of WUE to EOS increased significantly along the radiation and precipitation gradients in autumn, which may be because the increase of radiation and precipitation provides more water and energy for photosynthesis.

Keywords

Water-use efficiency Gross primary product Evapotranspiration Phenology Climate gradient Forest 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Key R & D Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFA0605402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41601442 & 41807173), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. 2017B06814).

References

  1. Beer C, Ciais P, Reichstein M, Baldocchi D, Law B E, Papale D, Soussana J F, Ammann C, Buchmann N, Frank D, Gianelle D, Janssens I A, Knohl A, Köstner B, Moors E, Roupsard O, Verbeeck H, Vesala T, Williams C A, Wohlfahrt G. 2009. Temporal and among-site variability of inherent water use efficiency at the ecosystem level. Glob Biogeochem Cycle, 23: GB2018Google Scholar
  2. Chen Y Y, Yang K, He J, Qin J, Shi J C, Du J Y, He Q. 2011. Improving land surface temperature modeling for dry land of China. J Geophys Res, 116: D20104Google Scholar
  3. Dai J H, Xu Y J, Wang H J, Alatalo J, Tao Z X, Ge Q S. 2017. Variations in the temperature sensitivity of spring leaf phenology from 1978 to 2014 in Mudanjiang, China. Int J Biometeorol, 63: 569–577Google Scholar
  4. Fu Y S H, Campioli M, Vitasse Y, De Boeck HJ, Van den Berge J, AbdElgawad H, Asard H, Piao S, Deckmyn G, Janssens I A. 2014. Variation in leaf flushing date influences autumnal senescence and next year’s flushing date in two temperate tree species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 111: 7355–7360Google Scholar
  5. Ge Q S, Dai J H, Cui H J, Wang H J. 2016. Spatiotemporal variability in start and end of growing season in china related to climate variability. Remote Sens, 8: 433Google Scholar
  6. Guerrieri R, Lepine L, Asbjornsen H, Xiao J, Ollinger S V. 2016. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency in relation to climate and canopy nitrogen in U.S. forests. J Geophys Res-Biogeosci, 121: 2610–2629Google Scholar
  7. Huang G, Li Y, Mu X H, Zhao H M, Cao Y F. 2017. Water-use efficiency in response to simulated increasing precipitation in a temperate desert ecosystem of Xinjiang, China. J Arid Land, 9: 823–836Google Scholar
  8. Huang M T, Piao S L, Sun Y, Philippe C, Cheng L, Mao J F, Ben P, Shi X Y, Zeng Z Z, Wang Y P. 2015. Change in terrestrial ecosystem water-use efficiency over the last three decades. Glob Change Biol, 21: 2366–2378Google Scholar
  9. Hu J, Moore D J P, Burns S P, Monson R K. 2010. Longer growing seasons lead to less carbon sequestration by a subalpine forest. Glob Change Biol, 16: 771–783Google Scholar
  10. Jin J X, Wang Y, Zhang Z F, Magliulo V, Jiang H, Cheng M. 2017a. Phenology plays an important role in the regulation of terrestrial ecosystem water-use efficiency in the northern hemisphere. Remote Sens, 9: 664Google Scholar
  11. Jin J X, Zhan W F, Wang Y, Gu B, Wang W, Jiang H. 2017b. Water use efficiency in response to interannual variations in flux-based photosynthetic onset in temperate deciduous broadleaf forests. Ecol Indic, 79: 122–127Google Scholar
  12. Keenan T F, Hollinger D Y, Bohrer G, Dragoni D, Munger J W, Schmid H P, Richardson A D. 2013. Increase in forest water-use efficiency as atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations rise. Nature, 499: 324–327Google Scholar
  13. Keenan T F, Gray J, Friedl M A, Toomey M, Bohrer G, Hollinger D Y, Munger J W, O’Keefe J, Schmid H P, Wing I S, Yang B, Richardson A D. 2014. Net carbon uptake has increased through warming-induced changes in temperate forest phenology. Nat Clim Change, 4: 598–604Google Scholar
  14. Keenan T F, Richardson A D. 2015. The timing of autumn senescence is affected by the timing of spring phenology: Implications for predictive models. Glob Change Biol, 21: 2634–2641Google Scholar
  15. Kljun N, Black T A, Griffis T J, Barr A G, Gaumont-Guay D, Morgenstern K, McCaughey J H, Nesic Z. 2006. Response of net ecosystem productivity of three boreal forest stands to drought. Ecosystems, 9: 1128–1144Google Scholar
  16. Law B E, Falge E, Gu L, Baldocchi D D, Bakwin P, Berbigier P, Davis K, Dolman A J, Falk M, Fuentes J D, Goldstein A, Granier A, Grelle A, Hollinger D, Janssens I A, Jarvis P, Jensen N O, Katul G, Mahli Y, Matteucci G, Meyers T, Monson R, Munger W, Oechel W, Olson R, Pilegaard K, Paw U K T, Thorgeirsson H, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S. 2002. Environmental controls over carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange of terrestrial vegetation. Agric For Meteorol, 113: 97–120Google Scholar
  17. Le Houerou H N. 1984. Rain use efficiency: A unifying concept in aridland ecology. J Arid Environ, 7: 213–247Google Scholar
  18. Li Y, Li C H, Xie J B, Liu Y, Liu X C, Wang Y G. 2019. Accumulation of organic carbon and its association with macro-aggregates during 100 years of oasis formation. Catena, 172: 770–780Google Scholar
  19. Liu R, Li Y, Wang Y G, Ma J, Cieraad E. 2019. Variation of water use efficiency across seasons and years: Different role of herbaceous plants in desert ecosystem. Sci Total Environ, 647: 827–835Google Scholar
  20. Liu R, Wang Y G, Li C H, Ma J, Li Y. 2018. Partitioning water source and sinking process of a groundwater-dependent desert plant community. Plant Soil, 430: 73–85Google Scholar
  21. Liu Q, FuY S H, Zhu Z C, Liu Y W, Liu Z, Huang M T, Janssens I A, Piao S L. 2016. Delayed autumn phenology in the northern hemisphere is related to change in both climate and spring phenology. Glob Change Biol, 22: 3702–3711Google Scholar
  22. Luyssaert S, Janssens I A, Sulkava M, Papale D, Dolman A J, Reichstein M, Hollmén J, Martin J G, Suni T, Vesala T, Loustau D, Law B E, Moors E J. 2007. Photosynthesis drives anomalies in net carbon-exchange of pine forests at different latitudes. Glob Change Biol, 13: 2110–2127Google Scholar
  23. McPherson R A. 2007. A review of vegetation—Atmosphere interactions and their influences on mesoscale phenomena. Prog Phys Geogr, 31: 261–285Google Scholar
  24. Morisette J T, Richardson A D, Knapp A K, Fisher J I, Graham E A, Abatzoglou J, Wilson B E, Breshears D D, Henebry G M, Hanes J M, Liang L. 2009. Tracking the rhythm of the seasons in the face of global change: Phenological research in the 21st century. Front Ecol Environ, 7: 253–260Google Scholar
  25. Mu Q, Zhao M, Running S W. 2011. Improvements to a modis global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm. Remote Sens Environ, 115: 1781–1800Google Scholar
  26. Piao S L, Tan J G, Chen A P, Fu Y S H, Philippe C, Liu Q, Janssens I A, Sara V, Zeng Z Z, Jeong S J L Y, Myneni R B, Peng S S, Shen M G, Peñuelas J. 2015. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature. Nat Commun, 6: 6911Google Scholar
  27. Ponton S, Flanagan L B, Alstad K P, Johnson B G, Morgenstern K, Kljun N, Black T A, Barr A G. 2010. Comparison of ecosystem water-use efficiency among Douglas-fir forest, aspen forest and grassland using eddy covariance and carbon isotope techniques. Glob Change Biol, 12: 294–310Google Scholar
  28. Reed B C, Schwartz M D, Xiao X. 2009. Phenology of Ecosystem Processes. New York: SpringerGoogle Scholar
  29. Reichstein M, Ciais P, Papale D, Valentini R, Running S, Viovy N, Cramer W, Granier A, Ogée J, Allard V, Aubinet M, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Carrara A, Grünwald T, Heimann M, Heinesch B, Knohl A, Kutsch W, Loustau D, Manca G, Matteucci G, Miglietta F, Ourcival J M, Pilegaard K, Pumpanen J, Rambal S, Schaphoff S, Seufert G, Soussana J F, Sanz M J, Vesala T, Zhao M. 2010. Reduction of ecosystem productivity and respiration during the european summer 2003 climate anomaly: A joint flux tower, remote sensing and modelling analysis. Glob Change Biol, 13: 634–651Google Scholar
  30. Richardson A D, Andy Black T, Ciais P, Delbart N, Friedl M A, Gobron N, Hollinger D Y, Kutsch W L, Longdoz B, Luyssaert S, Migliavacca M, Montagnani L, William Munger J, Moors E, Piao S, Rebmann C, Reichstein M, Saigusa N, Tomelleri E, Vargas R, Varlagin A. 2010. Influence of spring and autumn phenological transitions on forest ecosystem productivity. Phil Trans R Soc B, 365: 3227–3246Google Scholar
  31. Richardson A D, Keenan T F, Migliavacca M, Ryu Y, Sonnentag O, Toomey M. 2013. Climate change, phenology, and phenological control of vegetation feedbacks to the climate system. Agric For Meteorol, 169: 156–173Google Scholar
  32. Running S W, Nemani R R, Heinsch F A, Zhao M, Reeves M, Hashimoto H. 2004. A continuous satellite-derived measure of global terrestrial primary production. Bioscience, 54: 547–560Google Scholar
  33. Shen M G, Piao S L, Jeong S J, Zhou L M, Zeng Z Z, Ciais P, Chen D, Huang M T. 2015. Evaporative cooling over the tibetan plateau induced by vegetation growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 112: 9299–9304Google Scholar
  34. Sun S B, Song Z L, Wu Y T, Wu X C, Wang T J, Du W L, Che T, Huang C L, Zhang X J, Ping B, Lin X F, Li P, Yang Y X, Chen B Z. 2018. Spatio-temporal variations in water use efficiency and its drivers in China over the last three decades. Ecol Indic, 94: 292–304Google Scholar
  35. Sun Y, Piao S L, Huang M T, Ciais P, Zeng Z Z, Cheng L, Li X R, Zhang X P, Mao J F, Peng S S. 2016. Global patterns and climate drivers of water-use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems deduced from satellite-based datasets and carbon cycle models. Glob Ecol Biogeogr, 25: 311–323Google Scholar
  36. Tang X G, Li H P, Desai A R, Nagy Z, Luo J H, Kolb T E, Olioso A, Xu X B, Yao L, Kutsch W, Pilegaard K, Köstner B, Ammann C. 2015. How is water-use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems distributed and changing on earth? Sci Rep, 4: 7483Google Scholar
  37. von Arx G, Dobbertin M, Rebetez M. 2012. Spatio-temporal effects of forest canopy on understory microclimate in a long-term experiment in switzerland. Agric For Meteorol, 166–167: 144–155Google Scholar
  38. Wang H J, Dai J H, Zheng J, Ge Q S. 2015. Temperature sensitivity of plant phenology in temperate and subtropical regions of China from 1850 to 2009. Int J Climatol, 35: 913–922Google Scholar
  39. Wang H J, Zhong S Y, Tao Z X, Dai J H, Ge Q S. 2017. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants from 1963 to 2014 in North China. Int J Biometeorol, DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00484-017-1377-2 Google Scholar
  40. Wang H J, Dai J H, Rutishauser T, Gonsamo A, Wu C Y, Ge Q S. 2018. Trends and variability in temperature sensitivity of lilac flowering phenology. J Geophys Res-Biogeosci, 123: 807–817Google Scholar
  41. Wolf S, Keenan T F, Fisher J B, Baldocchi D D, Desai A R, Richardson A D, Scott R L, Law B E, Litvak M E, Brunsell N A, Peters W, van der Laan-Luijkx I T. 2016. Warm spring reduced carbon cycle impact of the 2012 US summer drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 113: 5880–5885Google Scholar
  42. Wu C Y, Chen J M, Gonsamo A, Price D T, Black T A, Kurz W A. 2012. Interannual variability of net carbon exchange is related to the lag between the end-dates of net carbon uptake and photosynthesis: Evidence from long records at two contrasting forest stands. Agric For Meteorol, 164: 29–38Google Scholar
  43. Wu C Y, Chen J M, Black T A, Price D T, Kurz W A, Desai A R. 2013. Interannual variability of net ecosystem productivity in forests is explained by carbon flux phenology in autumn. Glob Ecol Biogeogr, 22: 994–1006Google Scholar
  44. Yang Y T, Guan H D, Shang S H, Long D, Craig T S. 2014. Toward the use of the modis et product to estimate terrestrial gpp for nonforest ecosystems. IEEE Geosci Remote Sens Lett, 11: 1624–1628Google Scholar
  45. Zhao M S, Heinsch F A, Nemani R R, Running S W. 2005. Improvements of the modis terrestrial gross and net primary production global data set. Remote Sens Environ, 95: 164–176Google Scholar
  46. Zhou S, Yu B F, Huang Y F, Wang G Q. 2014. The effect of vapor pressure deficit on water use efficiency at the subdaily time scale. Geophys Res Lett, 41: 5005–5013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fengsheng Guo
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiaxin Jin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Bin Yong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ying Wang
    • 3
  • Hong Jiang
    • 4
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.School of Earth Sciences and EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingChina
  3. 3.School of Culture Industry and Tourism ManagementSanjiang UniversityNanjingChina
  4. 4.International Institute for Earth System ScienceNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations