Advertisement

Overview of deep structures under the Changbaishan volcanic area in Northeast China

  • Qi-Fu ChenEmail author
  • Yinshuang Ai
  • Yun Chen
Progress
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

The Changbaishan volcano is an active and considerably hazardous volcano located on the border of China and North Korea. This paper summarizes a series of geophysical surveys as well as seismological and volcano-observational networks around the Changbaishan volcanic area. We characterize deep structures related to the Changbaishan volcanic area. The prominent low-velocity anomalies and low-resistance bodies associated with the magma system under the Changbaishan volcano were detected in the crust and upper mantle, and high-velocity anomalies were imaged within the mantle transition zone, suggesting that the origin of the Changbaishan volcano is related to the subducted Pacific slab. However, there exist a few major obstacles for comprehensively elucidating the deep structure of the Changbaishan volcano as well as for the preparedness for and response toward future volcanic unrest and activity. It is essential to collect data from both China and Korean Peninsula to image the deep structure beneath the Changbaishan volcanic area. A multi-disciplinary approach comprising seismological investigations, deformation information from GNSS and InSar, and gravity and magnetotelluric surveying is a reliable manner for imaging high-resolution structures and fluid movement for the spatial distribution and variation of the volcanic magma chamber. An effective volcano-monitoring network system is considerably important to improve hazard assessments and characterize the potential future eruption of the Changbaishan volcano.

Keywords

Changbaishan volcano Deep structure Geophysical observation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all reviewers for their helpful and constructive opinions as well as suggestions to improve this paper. This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41474041 and 41774058) and the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB18000000).

References

  1. Ai Y S, Zheng T Y, Xu W W, He Y M, Dong D. 2003. A complex 660 km discontinuity beneath northeast China. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 212: 63–71Google Scholar
  2. Ai Y S, Zheng T Y, Xu W W, Li Q. 2008. Small scale hot upwelling near the North Yellow Sea of eastern China. Geophys Res Lett, 35: L20305Google Scholar
  3. Chang L J, Wang C Y, Ding Z F. 2009. Seismic anisotropy of upper mantle in eastern China. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 52: 774–783Google Scholar
  4. Chen C, Zhao D, Tian Y, Wu S, Hasegawa A, Lei J, Park J H, Kang I B. 2017. Mantle transition zone, stagnant slab and intraplate volcanism in Northeast Asia. Geophys J Int, 209: 68–85Google Scholar
  5. Chen H C, Niu F L, Obayashi M, Grand S, Kawakatsu H, Chen Y S, Ning J Y, Tanaka S. 2017. Mantle seismic anisotropy beneath NE China and implications for the lithospheric delamination hypothesis beneath the southern Great Xing’an range. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 471: 32–41Google Scholar
  6. Chen M, Niu F, Liu Q, Tromp J, Zheng X. 2015. Multiparameter adjoint tomography of the crust and upper mantle beneath East Asia: 1. Model construction and comparisons. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 120: 1762–1786Google Scholar
  7. Chen Q F, Wang X, Li J. 2016. Imaging the subducting Pacific slab beneath Northeast China with dense seismic array. Beijing: AOGS 13th Annual MeetingGoogle Scholar
  8. Choi S, Oh C W, Götze H J. 2013. Three-dimensional density modeling of the EGM2008 gravity field over the Mount Paekdu volcanic area. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 118: 3820–3836Google Scholar
  9. Chu K S, Tsuji Y, Baag C E, Kang T S 2011. Volcanic eruptions of Mt. Baekdu (Changbai) occurring in historical times. Bull Earthq Res Inst Univ Tokyo, 86: 11–27Google Scholar
  10. Cui H H, Zhou Y Z, Shi Y L, Wang X R, Li G H. 2016. Seismic detection of a low-velocity anomaly under the stagnant slab beneath the eastern North China Craton with P-wave triplication (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 59: 1309–1320Google Scholar
  11. Dokht R M H, Gu Y J, Sacchi M D. 2016. Waveform inversion of SS precursors: An investigation of the northwestern Pacific subduction zones and intraplate volcanoes in China. Gondwana Res, 40: 77–90Google Scholar
  12. Duan Y H, Zhang X K, Yang Z X, Zhang C K, Zhao J R, Pan J S. 2003. Crystalline basement structure of Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic area (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 25: 501–508Google Scholar
  13. Duan Y H, Zhang X K, Liu Z,Yuan Q X, Xu Z F, Wang F Y, Fang S M, Yang Z X. 2005. A study on crustal structures of Changbaishan-Jingpohu volcanic area using receiver functions (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 48: 352–358Google Scholar
  14. Duan Y H, Zhao D P, Zhang X K, Xia S H, Liu Z, Wang F Y, Li L. 2009. Seismic structure and origin of active intraplate volcanoes in Northeast Asia. Tectonophysics, 470: 257-266Google Scholar
  15. Fan Q C, Sui J L, Wang T H, Li N, Sun Q. 2007. History of volcanic activity, magma evolution and eruptive mechanisms of the Changbai volcanic province (in Chinese). Geol J China Univ, 13: 175–190Google Scholar
  16. Feng X, Chi H Z, Liu C,Tian Y, Liu Y L, Zheng Q. 2013. Three-dimension velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Changbai Mountain and its adjacent areas (in Chinese). J Jilin Univ-Earth Sci, 43: 983–992Google Scholar
  17. Fu Y Y, Gao Y. 2016. Phase velocity tomography of Rayleigh and Love waves using ambient noise in Northeast China (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 59: 494–503Google Scholar
  18. Fu Y V, Gao Y, Li A, Li L, Shi Y, Zhang Y. 2016. Origin of intraplate volcanism in northeast China from Love wave constraints. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 121: 8099–8112Google Scholar
  19. Fukao Y, Obayashi M, Inoue H, Nenbai M. 1992. Subducting slabs stagnant in the mantle transition zone. J Geophys Res, 97: 4809–4822Google Scholar
  20. Fukao Y, Obayashi M. 2013. Subducted slabs stagnant above, penetrating through, and trapped below the 660 km discontinuity. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 118: 5920–5938Google Scholar
  21. Gao J Z, Liu J, Sang C L, Zhang H Y, Hua W. 2007. Coda Q Estimates in the Mt. Changbai Tianchi Volcanic Region, East China (in Chinese). Earthq Res China, 23: 400–409Google Scholar
  22. Gao L, Shangguan Z G, Wei H Q, Wu C Z. 2006. Recent geochemical changes of hot-spring gases from Tianchi volcano area, Changbai Mountains, northeast China (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 28: 358–366Google Scholar
  23. Gao Z Y, Zhang R Q, Wu Q J, Zhang G C. 2015. A study on 660 km discontinuity beneath northeast China (in Chinese). Acta Seism Sin, 37: 711–721Google Scholar
  24. Gu Y J, Okeler A, Schultz R. 2012. Tracking slabs beneath northwestern Pacific subduction zones. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 331-332: 269–280Google Scholar
  25. Guo Z, Chen Y J, Ning J, Feng Y, Grand S P, Niu F, Kawakatsu H, Tanaka S, Obayashi M, Ni J. 2015. High resolution 3-D crustal structure beneath NE China from joint inversion of ambient noise and receiver functions using NECESSArray data. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 416: 1–11Google Scholar
  26. Guo Z, Chen Y J, Ning J, Yang Y, Afonso J C, Tang Y. 2016. Seismic evidence of on-going sublithosphere upper mantle convection for intraplate volcanism in Northeast China. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 433: 31–43Google Scholar
  27. Guo Z, Wang K, Yang Y, Tang Y, Chen Y J, Hung S H. 2018. The origin and mantle dynamics of quaternary intraplate volcanism in Northeast China from joint inversion of surface wave and body wave. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 123: 2410–2425Google Scholar
  28. Hetland E A, Wu F T, Song J L. 2004. Crustal structure in the Changbaishan volcanic area, China, determined by modeling receiver functions. Tectonophysics, 386: 157–175Google Scholar
  29. Hong H J, Wu J P, Wang Q L, Li K, Zhao C P, Shangguan Z G, Yang Q F, Zhang H R, Liu G M. 2007. Volcanic threat levels and classification of volcanic activity in China (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 29: 447–458Google Scholar
  30. Hong T K, Choi E, Park S, Shin J S. 2016. Prediction of ground motion and dynamic stress change in Baekdusan (Changbaishan) volcano caused by a North Korean nuclear explosion. Sci Rep, 6: 21477Google Scholar
  31. Hu Y X, Wang Q L, Cui D X, Li K, Zheng C F. 2004. Joint inversion of geometric deformation in Changbaishan volcanic area (in Chinese). J Geodesy Geodyn, 24: 90–94Google Scholar
  32. Huang J L, Zhao D P. 2006. High-resolution mantle tomography of China and surrounding regions. J Geophys Res, 111: B09305Google Scholar
  33. Iacovino K, Ju-Song K, Sisson T, Lowenstern J, Kuk-Hun R, Jong-Nam J, Kun-Ho S, Song-Hwan H, Oppenheimer C, Hammond J O S, Donovan A, Liu K W, Kum-Ran R. 2016. Quantifying gas emissions from the “Millennium Eruption” of Paektu volcano, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea/China. Sci Adv, 2: e1600913Google Scholar
  34. Kang D, Shen W, Ning J, Ritzwoller M H. 2016. Seismic evidence for lithospheric modification associated with intracontinental volcanism in northeastern China. Geophys J Int, 204: 215–235Google Scholar
  35. Kim S, Tkalčić H, Rhie J, Chen Y. 2016. Intraplate volcanism controlled by back-arc and continental structures in NE Asia inferred from transdimensional Bayesian ambient noise tomography. Geophys Res Lett, 43: 8390–8398Google Scholar
  36. Kim S, Tkalči’c H, Rhie J. 2017. Seismic constraints on magma evolution beneath Mount Baekdu (Changbai) volcano from transdimensional Bayesian inversion of ambient noise data. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 122: 5452–5473Google Scholar
  37. Kyong-Song R, Hammond J O S, Chol-Nam K, Hyok K, Yong-Gun Y, Gil-Jong P, Chong-Song R, Oppenheimer C, Liu K W, Iacovino K, Kum-Ran R. 2016. Evidence for partial melt in the crust beneath Mt. Paektu (Changbaishan), Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and China. Sci Adv, 2: e1501513Google Scholar
  38. Lei J S, Zhao D P. 2004. The relationship between the origin of the intraplate Changbai volcano and the subducting Pacific slab (in Chinese). Adv Earth Sci, 19: 364–367Google Scholar
  39. Lei J S, Zhao D. 2005. P-wave tomography and origin of the Changbai intraplate volcano in Northeast Asia. Tectonophysics, 397: 281–295Google Scholar
  40. Lei J S, Xie F R, Fan Q C, Santosh M. 2013. Seismic imaging of the deep structure under the Chinese volcanoes: An overview. Phys Earth Planet Inter, 224: 104–123Google Scholar
  41. Lei J S, Zhao D P, Xu Y G, Fan Q C, Mi Q, Du M F, Lu M W. 2018. Is there a gap in the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone under the Changbaishan volcano? (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 34: 13–22Google Scholar
  42. Li C, van der Hilst R D. 2010. Structure of the upper mantle and transition zone beneath Southeast Asia from traveltime tomography. J Geophys Res, 115: B07308Google Scholar
  43. Li X, Yuan X. 2003. Receiver functions in northeast China-implications for slab penetration into the lower mantle in northwest Pacific subduction zone. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 216: 679–691Google Scholar
  44. Li J, Chen Q F, Vanacore E, Niu F. 2008. Topography of the 660-km discontinuity beneath northeast China: Implications for a retrograde motion of the subducting Pacific slab. Geophys Res Lett, 35: L01302Google Scholar
  45. Li J, Niu F. 2010. Seismic anisotropy and mantle flow beneath northeast China inferred from regional seismic networks. J Geophys Res, 115: B12327Google Scholar
  46. Li J, Wang X, Wang X, Yuen D A. 2013. P and SH velocity structure in the upper mantle beneath Northeast China: Evidence for a stagnant slab in hydrous mantle transition zone. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 367: 71–81Google Scholar
  47. Li J, Tosi N, Maierova P, Yuen D A. 2016. Evidence from caustics waveform modelling for long slab thickening above the 660-km discontinuity under northeast Asia: Dynamical implicaiton. AGU Monograph, 211: 5–18Google Scholar
  48. Li Y H, Wu Q J, Pan J T, Sun L. 2012. S-wave velocity structure of northeastern China from joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities. Geophys J Int, 190: 105–115Google Scholar
  49. Liu G M, Yang J K, Wang L J, Sun J C. 2011a. Active level analysis of the Tianchi volcano in Changbaishan, China (in Chinese). Bull Miner Petrol Geochem, 30: 393–399Google Scholar
  50. Liu G M, Yang J, Wang L, Sun J C. 2011b. Analysis of Tianchi volcano activity in Changbai mountain, NE China. Global Geol, 14: 45–53Google Scholar
  51. Liu G M, Li C, Peng Z, Li X, Wu J. 2017. Detecting remotely triggered microseismicity around Changbaishan Volcano following nuclear explosions in North Korea and large distant earthquakes around the world. Geophys Res Lett, 44: 4829–4838Google Scholar
  52. Liu J Q, Chen S S, Guo W F, Sun C Q, Zhang M L, Guo Z F. 2015. Research advances in the Mt. Changbai volcano (in Chinese). Bull Miner Petrol Geochem, 34: 710–723Google Scholar
  53. Liu R X, Li J T,Wei H Q, Xu D M, Zheng X S. 1992. Volcano at Tianchi Lake, Changbaishan MT.—A modern volcano with potential danger of eruption (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 35: 661–655Google Scholar
  54. Liu R X, Fan Q C, Wei H Q, Li N. 1999. Study on active volcanoes of China (in Chinese). Geol Rev, 45(Suppl): 15Google Scholar
  55. Liu X, Zhao D, Li S, Wei W. 2017. Age of the subducting Pacific slab beneath East Asia and its geodynamic implications. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 464: 166–174Google Scholar
  56. Liu Z, Zhang X K, Wang F Y, Duan Y H, Lai X L. 2004. 2-D crustal Poisson’s ratio from seismic travel time inversion in Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region. Acta Seimol Sin, 18: 345-353Google Scholar
  57. Liu Z, Niu F, Chen Y J, Grand S, Kawakatsu H, Ning J, Tanaka S, Obayashi M, Ni J. 2015. Receiver function images of the mantle transition zone beneath NE China: New constraints on intraplate volcanism, deep subduction and their potential link. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 412: 101-111Google Scholar
  58. Liu Z, Huang J, Yao H. 2016. Anisotropic Rayleigh wave tomography of Northeast China using ambient seismic noise. Phys Earth Planet Inter, 256: 37–48Google Scholar
  59. Ma X Y, Teng J W, Liu Y S, Dong X P, Song P H. 2016. Physical property structure of the crust-mantle and deep geophysical feature in Changbaishan volcanic area (in Chinese). Prog Geophys, 31: 1973–1985Google Scholar
  60. Ming Y H, Su W, Fang L H. 2006. A preliminary study of types of volcanic earthquakes and volcanic activity in Changbaishan, Tianchi Volcano (in Chinese). Earthq Res China, 22: 56–63Google Scholar
  61. Ming Y H, Wu J P, Su W, Fang L H, Wang W L. 2007. Harmonic spectral event at Changbaishan Tianchi volcano (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 29: 492–501Google Scholar
  62. Niu F. 2014. Distinct compositional thin layers at mid-mantle depths beneath northeast China revealed by the USArray. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 402: 305–312Google Scholar
  63. Niu F, Kawakatsu H. 1996. Complex structure of mantle discontinuities at the tip of the subducting slab beneath northeast China: A preliminary investigation of broadband receiver functions. J Phys Earth, 44: 701–711Google Scholar
  64. Oppenheimer C, Wacker L, Xu J, Galv’an J D, Stoffel M, Guillet S, Corona C, Sigl M, Di Cosmo N, Hajdas I, Pan B, Breuker R, Schneider L, Esper J, Fei J, Hammond J O S, Büntgen U. 2017. Multi-proxy dating the ‘Millennium Eruption’ of Changbaishan to late 946 CE. Quat Sci Rev, 158: 164–171Google Scholar
  65. Pan J T, Li Y H, Wu Q J, Yu D X. 2014a. 3-D S-wave velocity structure of crust and upper-mantle beneath the northeast China (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 57: 2077–2087Google Scholar
  66. Pan J T, Wu Q J, Li Y H, Yu D X. 2014b. Ambient noise tomography in northeast China (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 57: 812–821Google Scholar
  67. Park S C, Kim T U, Cho I W, Kim S C, Kim I C. 2016. Scoriae magma evolution at Paekdu volcano, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (in Chinese). Acta Petrol Sin, 32: 3214–3224Google Scholar
  68. Qiang Z Y, Wu Q J. 2015. Upper mantle anisotropy beneath the north of northeast China and its dynamic significance (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 58: 3540–3552Google Scholar
  69. Qiu G G, Pei F G, Fang H, Du B R, Zhang X B, Zhang P H, Yuan Y Z, He M X, Bai D W. 2014. Analysis of magma chamber at the Tianchi volcano area in Changbai Mountain (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 57: 3466–3477Google Scholar
  70. Song J L, Hetland E A, Wu F T, Zhang X K, Liu G D, Yang Z X. 2007. P-wave velocity structure under the Changbaishan volcanic region, NE China, from wide-angle reflection and refraction data. Tectonophysics, 433: 127–139Google Scholar
  71. Stone R. 2010. Is China’s riskiest volcano stirring or merely biding its time? Science, 329: 498–499Google Scholar
  72. Stone R. 2011. Vigil at North Korea’s Mount Doom. Science, 334: 584–588Google Scholar
  73. Sun C, Plunkett G, Liu J, Zhao H, Sigl M, McConnell J R, Pilcher J R, Vinther B, Steffensen J P, Hall V. 2014. Ash from Changbaishan Millennium eruption recorded in Greenland ice: Implications for determining the eruption’s timing and impact. Geophys Res Lett, 41: 694-701Google Scholar
  74. Tajima F, Katayama I, Nakagawa T. 2009. Variable seismic structure near the 660 km discontinuity associated with stagnant slabs and geochemical implications. Phys Earth Planet Inter, 172: 183–198Google Scholar
  75. Takeuchi N, Kawakatsu H, Tanaka S, Obayashi M, Chen Y J, Ning J, Grand S P, Niu F, Ni J, Iritani R, Idehara K, Tonegawa T. 2014. Upper mantle tomography in the northwestern Pacific region using triplicated P waves. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 119: 7667–7685Google Scholar
  76. Tang J, Liu T S, Jiang Z, Zhao G Z, Wang J J, Zhan Y. 1997. Preliminary observations of the Tianchi volcano area in Changbaishan Mountain by MT method (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 19: 164–170Google Scholar
  77. Tang J, Deng Q H, Zhao G Z, Li W J, Xuan F, Jin G W, Bai D H, Zhan Y, Liang J G, Pu X H, Wang J J, Li G S, Hong F, Ma M Z, Chen F X. 2001. Electric conductivity and magma chamber at the Tianchi volcano area in Changbaishan Mountain (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 23: 191–200Google Scholar
  78. Tang Y C, Obayashi M, Niu F, Grand S P, Chen Y J, Kawakatsu H, Tanaka S, Ning J, Ni J F. 2014. Changbaishan volcanism in northeast China linked to subduction-induced mantle upwelling. Nat Geosci, 7: 470–475Google Scholar
  79. Tao K, Niu F, Ning J, Chen Y J, Grand S, Kawakatsu H, Tanaka S, Obayashi M, Ni J. 2014. Crustal structure beneath NE China imaged by NECESSArray receiver function data. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 398: 48–57Google Scholar
  80. Tao K, Grand S P, Niu F. 2018. Seismic structure of the upper mantle beneath Eastern Asia from full waveform seismic tomography. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 19: 2732–2763Google Scholar
  81. Tian Y, Legendre C P, Zhou T, Han J G, Wu M Y, Zhao L, Ning J Y. 2017. High resolution anisotropic phase velocity tomography of Northeast China and its implication (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 60: 1659–1675Google Scholar
  82. Tian Y, Liu C, Feng X. 2011. P-wave velocity structure of crust and upper mantle in Northeast China and its control on the formation of mineral and energy (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 54: 407–414Google Scholar
  83. Tian Y, Zhu H, Zhao D, Liu C, Feng X, Liu T, Ma J. 2016. Mantle transition zone structure beneath the Changbai volcano: Insight into deep slab dehydration and hot upwelling near the 410 km discontinuity. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 121: 5794–5808Google Scholar
  84. Wang F Y, Zhang X K, Yang Z X. 2002. 2-D crustal structure of Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region determined by seismic traveltime inversion. Acta Seimol Sin, 15: 152–161Google Scholar
  85. Wang B S, Niu F. 2010. A broad 660 km discontinuity beneath northeast China revealed by dense regional seismic networks in China. J Geophys Res, 115: B06308Google Scholar
  86. Wang K Y, Liu D, Liu J R, Ai Y S. 2015. Crustal seismic in the Northeast of China (in Chinese). Prog Geophys, 30: 61–69Google Scholar
  87. Wang T, Revenaugh J, Song X. 2014. Two-dimensional/three-dimensional waveform modeling of subducting slab and transition zone beneath Northeast Asia. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 119: 4766–4786Google Scholar
  88. Wang W, Chen Q F. 2017. The crust S-wave velocity structure under the Changbaishan volcano area in northeast China inferred from ambient noise tomography (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 60: 3080–3095Google Scholar
  89. Wang X. 2016. Seismological study on upper mantle transition zone structure beneath the northwest Pacific subduction region. Doctoral Dissertation (in Chinese). Beijing: University of Chinese Academy of SciencesGoogle Scholar
  90. Wang X, Chen Q, Li J, Wei S. 2016. Seismic sensor misorientation measurement using P-wave particle motion: An application to the NECsaids array. Seismol Res Lett, 87: 901–911Google Scholar
  91. Wei H Q. 2014. Tianchi Volcano, Changbaishan (in Chinese). Beijing: Seismological Press. 448Google Scholar
  92. Wei H Q, Liu G, Gill J. 2013. Review of eruptive activity at Tianchi volcano, Changbaishan, northeast China: Implications for possible future eruptions. Bull Volcanol, 75: 706Google Scholar
  93. Wei W, Xu J, Zhao D, Shi Y. 2012. East Asia mantle tomography: New insight into plate subduction and intraplate volcanism. J Asian Earth Sci, 60: 88–103Google Scholar
  94. Wei W, Zhao D, Xu J, Wei F, Liu G. 2015. P and S wave tomography and anisotropy in Northwest Pacific and East Asia: Constraints on stagnant slab and intraplate volcanism. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 120: 1642–1666Google Scholar
  95. Wu J P, Ming Y H, Liu Y M, Qi S F, Yuan S Y. 2003. A study on the microearthquake swarm occurred on Aug. 20, 2002 in Changbaishan Tianchi volcano (in Chinese). Seismol Geomagn Obs Res, 24: 1–8Google Scholar
  96. Wu J P, Ming Y H, Zhang H R, Su W, Liu Y M. 2005. Seismic activity at the Changbaishan Tianchi volcano in the summer of 2002 (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 48: 621–628Google Scholar
  97. Wu J P, Jiao W J, Ming Y H, Su W. 2006. Attenuation of coda waves at the Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic area in Northeast China. Pure Appl Geophys, 163: 1351–1368Google Scholar
  98. Wu J P, Ming Y H, Zhang H R, Liu G M, Fang L H, Su W, Wang W L. 2007. Earthquake swarm activity in Changbaishan Tianchi volcano (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 50: 1089–1096Google Scholar
  99. Wu J P, Ming Y H, Fang L H, Wang W L. 2009a. S-wave velocity structure beneath Changbaishan volcano inferred from receiver function. Earthq Sci, 22: 409–416Google Scholar
  100. Wu J P, Ming Y H, Su W, Fang L H, Wang W L. 2009b. S-wave velocity structure beneath Changbaishan Tianchi volcano inferred from receiver function (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 31: 584–597Google Scholar
  101. Xu J, Liu G, Wu J, Ming Y, Wang Q, Cui D, Shangguan Z, Pan B, Lin X, Liu J. 2012. Recent unrest of Changbaishan volcano, northeast China: A precursor of a future eruption? Geophys Res Lett, 39: L16305Google Scholar
  102. Xu P, Zhao D. 2009. Upper-mantle velocity structure beneath the North China Craton: Implications for lithospheric thinning. Geophys J Int, 177: 1279–1283Google Scholar
  103. Yang Q F, Bo J S. 2007. Status quo and prospects for research on Tianchi volcano in Changbai Mountain (in Chinese). J Nat Disasters, 16: 133–139Google Scholar
  104. Yang Q F, Gao J Z, Liu J Q, Pan X D, Wen H T, Zhang Y. 2013a. Constructing framework of early warning system of Tianchi volcano, Changbaishan (I): Construction of volcano monitoring network (in Chinese). J Nat Disasters, 22: 112–119Google Scholar
  105. Yang Q F, Feng Q M, Zhang Y, Wen H T, Liu J Q, Pan X D. 2013b. Constructing framework of early warning system of Tianchi Volcano, Changbai Mountain (II): Construction of early warning platform (in Chinese). J Nat Disasters, 22: 110–115Google Scholar
  106. Yang Z X, Zhang X K, Zhao J R, Yang J, Duan Y L, Wang S J. 2005. Tomographic imaging of 3-D crustal structure beneath Changbaishan-Tianchi volcano region (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 48: 107–115Google Scholar
  107. Zhang C K, Zhang X K, Zhao J R, Liu B F, Zhang J S, Yang Z X, Hai Y, Sun G W. 2002. Crust-mantle structure of the Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region and its vicinity: An exploratory study and inferences (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 45: 862–871Google Scholar
  108. Zhang F X, Wu Q J, Li Y H. 2013. The traveltime tomography study by teleseismic P wave data in the Northeast China area (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 56: 2690–2700Google Scholar
  109. Zhang F X, Wu Q J, Li Y H. 2014. A traveltime tomography study by teleseismic S wave data in the Northeast China area (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 57: 88–101Google Scholar
  110. Zhang G C, Wu Q J, Pan J T, Zhang F X, Yu D X. 2013. Study of crustal structure and Poisson ratio of NE China by H-κ stack and CCP stack methods (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 56: 4084–4094Google Scholar
  111. Zhang G W, Guo A L, Dong Y P, Yao A P. 2011. Continental geology, tectonics and dynamics (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 18: 1–12Google Scholar
  112. Zhang M, Guo Z, Cheng Z, Zhang L, Liu J. 2015. Late Cenozoic intraplate volcanism in Changbai volcanic field, on the border of China and North Korea: Insights into deep subduction of the Pacific slab and intraplate volcanism. J Geol Soc, 172: 648–663Google Scholar
  113. Zhang R, Wu Q, Li Y, Romanowicz B. 2012. Lateral variations in SH velocity structure of the transition zone beneath Korea and adjacent regions. J Geophys Res, 117: B09315Google Scholar
  114. Zhang R, Gao Z, Wu Q, Xie Z, Zhang G. 2016. Seismic images of the mantle transition zone beneath Northeast China and the Sino-Korean craton from P-wave receiver functions. Tectonophysics, 675: 159–167Google Scholar
  115. Zhang X K, Zhang C K, Zhao J R, Yang Z X, Li S L, Zhang J S, Liu B F, Cheng S X, Sun G W, Pan S Z. 2002. Deep seismic sounding investigation into the deep structure of the magma system in Changbaishan-Tianchi volcanic region. Acta Seism Sin, 15: 143–151Google Scholar
  116. Zhao D. 2004. Global tomographic images of mantle plumes and subducting slabs: Insight into deep Earth dynamics. Phys Earth Planet Inter, 146: 3–34Google Scholar
  117. Zhao D P, Lei J S, Tang R Y. 2004. Origin of the Changbai intraplate volcanism in Northeast China: Evidence from seismic tomography. Chin Sci Bull, 49: 1401–1408Google Scholar
  118. Zhao D, Tian Y, Lei J, Liu L, Zheng S. 2009. Seismic image and origin of the Changbai intraplate volcano in East Asia: Role of big mantle wedge above the stagnant Pacific slab. Phys Earth Planet Inter, 173: 197–206Google Scholar
  119. Zhao D, Liu L. 2010. Deep structure and origin of active volcanoes in China. Geosci Front, 1: 31–44Google Scholar
  120. Zhao D, Yu S, Ohtani E. 2011. East Asia: Seismotectonics, magmatism and mantle dynamics. J Asian Earth Sci, 40: 689–709Google Scholar
  121. Zhao J R, Zhang X K, Yang Z X, Zhang C K, Wang F Y, Zhang J S, Liu B F, Duan Y L, Wang S J. 2003. 3D tomography of velocity structure in the upper crust beneath the Changbaishan Tianchi volcanic region (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 46: 796–802Google Scholar
  122. Zhao L F, Xie X B, Wang W M, Zhang J H, Yao Z X. 2010. Seismic Lgwave Q tomography in and around Northeast China. J Geophys Res, 115: B08307Google Scholar
  123. Zhao L F, Xie X B, Tian B F, Chen Q F, Hao T Y, Yao Z X. 2015. Pn wave geometrical spreading and attenuation in Northeast China and the Korean Peninsula constrained by observations from North Korean nuclear explosions. J Geophys Res-Solid Earth, 120: 7558–7571Google Scholar
  124. Zhu H X, Tian Y, Liu C, Feng X, Yang B J, Liu C H, Liu T, Ma J C. 2017. High-resolution crustal structure of Northeast China revealed by teleseismic receiver functions (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 60: 1676–1689Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and GeophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Institutions of Earth ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and GeophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations