Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 5, pp 812–831 | Cite as

Geophysical evidence for thrusting of crustal materials from orogenic belts over both sides of the Yangtze Block and its geological significance

  • Yingkang LiEmail author
  • Jianwei Gao
  • Jian Han
  • Yu’e Yang
Research Paper


Based on deep geophysical detections, we have reconstructed the crustal structure from the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau to the Jiangnan-Xuefeng orogenic belt. The results suggest that the Yangtze Block was overthrusted by crustal materials in its NW direction from the eastern Tibetan Plateau but in its SE direction from the Jiangnan orogen. These overthrusting effects control the crustal structure from the western Sichuan to the western area of the Jiangnan orogen-Xuefeng orogenic belt. The eastward extruded materials from the eastern Tibetan Plateau were blocked by the rigid basement in the Sichuan Basin, where upper-middle crust was overthrusted whereas the lower crust was underthrusted beneath the Sichuan Basin. The underthrusted unit was absorbed by crustal folding, shortening and thickening in the Yangtze Block, forming the Xiongpo and Longquan Mountains tectonic belts and resulting in the NW-directed thrusting of the Pujiang-Chengdu-Deyang fault, and the western hillsiden fault in the Longquan Mountain. These results provide resolution to the controversy where the eastward extrusion material from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau had gone. Overall, that Yangtze Block was subjected to thrusting of the crustal materials from the orogenic belts over its both sides. This finding has implications for the study of the intracontinental orogenic mechanism in South China, the reconstruction of tectonic evolutionary history and the kinematics processes during the lateral extrusion of the Tibet Plateau.


Geophysics Crustal structure Subduction of the Yangtze Block Eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau Jiangnan-Xuefeng orogenic belt 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The comments and suggestions made by the review experts during the revision process of this article are sincerely acknowledged, and grateful all personnel involved in geophysical data collection and processing. This paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41574093, 41774114), and SinoProbe-02 (Grant No. A1011B).

Supplementary material

11430_2018_9290_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (3.7 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 3.69 MB.


  1. Agudelo W, Ribodetti A, Collot J Y, Operto S. 2009. Joint inversion of multichannel seismic reflection and wide–angle seismic data: Improved imaging and refined velocity model of the crustal structure of the north Ecuador–south Colombia convergent margin. J Geophys Res, 114: B02306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bai D Y, Zhong X, Jia P Y, Xiong X, Huang W Y. 2013. Nature, origin and tectonic setting of Jinzhou basin in the south segment of Xuefeng orogen (in Chinese). Geol China, 40: 1079–1091Google Scholar
  3. Bai D Y, Xiong X, Yang J, Zhong X, Jiang W. 2015a. Characteristics and Dynamic Mechanisms of the Folds in the Basin–Mountain Transition Zone, East of the Qiyueshan Fault (in Chinese). Geotect Metall, 39: 1008–1021Google Scholar
  4. Bai D Y, Zhong X, Jia P Y, Xiong X, Huang W Y and Jiang W. 2015b. Progresses in the deformations and tectonic evolutions of the Xuefeng Orogenic Belt and its adjacent areas (in Chinese). Geol Mineral Resour South China, 31: 321–343Google Scholar
  5. Bai D Y, Zhong X, Jia P Y, Xiong X, Huang W Y. 2016. Activity history and tectonic at tribute of Xupu–Jingzhou fault in Xuefeng orogenic belt (in Chinese). J Earth Sci Environ, 38: 306–317Google Scholar
  6. Braile L W, Chiang C S. 1986. The continental Moho discontinuity: Results from near–vertical and wide–angle seismic reflection studies. Reflection Seismol–A Glob Perspect, 13: 257–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown L, Wille D, Zheng L, Devoogd B, Mayer J, Hearn T, Sanford W, Caruso C, Zhu T F, Nelson D, Potter C, Hauser E, Klemperer S, Kaufman S, Oliver J. 1987. COCORP: New perspectives on the deep crust. Geophys J Int, 89: 47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Calvert A J, Sawyer E W, Davis W J, Ludden J N. 1995. Archaean subduction inferred from seismic images of a mantle suture in the Superior Province. Nature, 375: 670–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cai Y L, Zhu J S, Cao J M, Cheng X Q. 2005. Three–dimensional structural and dynamic types of the continental margin lithosphere in southeast China (in Chinese). Mar Geol Quat Geol, 25:25–34Google Scholar
  10. Deng Q D, Chen S F, Zhao X L. 1994. Tectonics seismicity and dynamics of Longmenshan Mountains and its adjacent regions (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 16: 389–403Google Scholar
  11. Deng W Z, Chen J H, Guo B, Liu Q Y, Li S C, Li Y, Yin X Z, Qi S H. 2014. Fine velocity structure of the Longmenshan fault zone by double–difference tomography (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 57: 1101–1110Google Scholar
  12. Dong S W, Zhang Y Q, Chen X H, Hu J M. 2008. The formation and deformational Characteristics of eastasia multi–direction convergent tectonic system in Late Jurassic. Acta Geosci Sin, 29: 306–317Google Scholar
  13. Dong S W, Zhang Y Q, Gao R, Su J B, Liu M, Li J H. 2015. A possible buried Paleoproterozoic collisional orogen beneath central South China: Evidence from seismic–reflection profiling. Precambrian Res, 264: 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eaton D W. 2006. Multi–genetic origin of the continental Moho: Insights from Lithoprobe. Terra Nova, 18: 34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. England P, Houseman G. 1986. Finite strain calculations of continental deformation: 2. Comparison with the India–Asia Collision Zone. J Geophys Res, 91: 3664–3676Google Scholar
  16. Feng S Y, Zhang P Z, Liu B J, Wang M, Zhu S B, Ran Y K, Wang W T, Zhang Z Q, Zheng W J, Zheng D W, Zhang H P, Tian X F. 2016. Deep crustal deformation of the Longmen Shan, eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, from seismic reflection and Finite Element modeling. J Geophys Res–Solid Earth, 121: 767–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fuchs K. 1969. On the properties of deep crustal reflectors. Geophysics, 35: 133–149Google Scholar
  18. Gajewski D, Holbrook W S, Prodehl C. 1987. Combined seismic reflection and refraction profiling in southwest Germany–detailed velocity mapping by the refraction survey. Geophys J Int, 89: 333–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gao R, Dong S W, He R Z, Liu X C, Li Q S, Guan Y, Bai J, Li P W, Huang D D, Qian G H, Kuang C Y, Li S Z. 2004. Subduction process of the Yangtze continental block from Moho reflection image, South China (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 11: 43–49Google Scholar
  20. Gao R, Chen C, Wang H Y, Lu Z W, Brown L, Dong S W, Feng S Y, Li Q S, Li W H, Weng Z P, Li F. 2016. SINOPROBE deep reflection profile reveals a Neo–Proterozoic subduction zone beneath Sichuan Basin. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 454: 86–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Giese P, Morelli C, Prodehl C, Vecchia O. 1971. Crust and upper mantle beneath the southern part of the zone of Ivrea. Geophysics, 101: 182–183Google Scholar
  22. Guo X Y, Gao R, Randy K G, Xu X, Wang H Y, Li W H. 2013. Imaging the crustal structure beneath the eastern Tibetan Plateau and implications for the uplift of the Longmen Shan range. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 379: 72–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gutenberg B. 1955. Channel waves in the earth’s crust. Geophysics, 20: 283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hansen T M, Balling N. 2004. Upper–mantle reflectors: Modelling of seismic wavefield characteristics and tectonic implications. Geophys J Int, 157: 664–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Huang Z Z, Tang R C. 1995. The Longquanshan Fault zone and exploration of potential earthquake ability (in Chinese). Earthq Res Sichuan, 1: 18–23Google Scholar
  26. Huang W, Jiang W L. 2012. Discussion on the late of quaternary activity and earthquake risk potential Longquanshan Fault in Sichuan (in Chinese). NW Seismol J, 34: 50–56Google Scholar
  27. Jones A G. 1999. Imaging the continental upper mantle using electromagnetic methods. Lithos, 48: 57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jia D, Chen Z X, Jia C Z, Wei G J, Li B L, Zhang Q, Wei D T, Shen Y. 2003. Structural features of the Longmen shan fold and thrust belt and develoment of the western Sichuan foreland basin, central China (in Chinese). Geol J Chin Univ, 9: 402–410Google Scholar
  29. Jia S X, Liu B J, Xu Z F, Liu Z, Feng S Y, Zhang J S, Lin J Y, Tian X F, Liu Q X, Guo W B. 2014. The crustal structures of the central Longmenshan along and its margins as related to the seismotectonics of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Sci China Earth Sci, 57: 777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koppers A A P, Morgan J P, Morgan J W, Staudigel H. 2001. Testing the fixed hotspot hypothesis using 40Ar/39Ar age progressions along seamount trails. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 185: 237–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Landisman M, Mueller S. 1966. Seismic studies of the Earth’s crust in continents II: Analysis of wave propagation in continents and adjacent shelf areas. Geophys J Int, 10: 539–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Li K, Xu X W, Tan X B. 2013. Using deformation terraces to confine the shortening and uplift of the Longquan anticline. Seismol Geol, 35: 22–36Google Scholar
  33. Li J B, Li Y, Zhao G H, Yan Z K, Zhou R J, Zheng L L, Yan L, Yang Y Q. 2014. Structural features and genetic mechanism of Xiongpo anticline in Sichuan Basin (in Chinese). Geoscience, 28: 761–771Google Scholar
  34. Li J X, Hong Q Y, Zheng X Y. 2017. Study on the deep seismic wide–angle reflection/ refraction profile in the middle of Longmenshan fault zone (in Chinese). Acta Seismol Sin, 39: 188–206Google Scholar
  35. Li Y K, Gao R, Yao Y T, Mi S X, Li W H, Xiong X S. 2014. Crustal velocity structure from the northern margin of the north China craton to the southern margin of the Siberian plate. Chin J Geophys, 57: 48–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Li Z W, Xu Y, Huang R Q, Hao T Y, Xu Y, Liu J S, Liu J H. 2011. Crustal P–wave velocity structure of the Longmenshan region and its tectonic implications for the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Sci China Earth Sci, 54: 1386–1393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Li Z X, Li X H. 2007. Formation of the 1300–km–wide intracontinental orogen and postorogenic magmatic province in Mesozoic South China: A flat–slab subduction model. Geology, 35: 179–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liu S G, Luo Z L. 1991. On the mechanism of an new type of intracontinent subduction–The Longmanshan subduction (in Chinese). Exp Pet Geol, 13: 314–324Google Scholar
  39. Liu Q Y, van der Hilst R D, Li Y, Yao H J, Chen J H, Guo B, Qi S H, Wang J, Huang H, Li S C. 2014. Eastward expansion of the Tibetan Plateau by crustal flow and strain partitioning across faults. Nat Geosci, 7: 361–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Luetgert J H. 1985. Lithospheric structure in the northern Appalachians from 1984. Maine–Quebec seismic refraction data, Eos Trans. AGU. 66, 308Google Scholar
  41. Luo Z L. 1984. A preliminary approach on C–subduction and its hydrocarbon prospecting (in Chinese). Oil Gas Geol, 5: 315–324Google Scholar
  42. Mao J R, Li Z L, Ye H M. 2014. Mesozoic tectono–magmatic activities in South China: Retrospect and prospect. Sci China Earth Sci, 57: 2853–2877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Maruyama S, Santosh M, Zhao D. 2007. Superplume, supercontinent, and post–perovskite: Mantle dynamics and anti–plate tectonics on the Core–Mantle Boundary. Gondwana Res, 11: 7–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mei L F, Liu Z Q, Tang J G, Shen C B, Fan Y F. 2010. Mesozoic intracontinental progressive deformation in western Hunan–Hubei–eastern Sichuan Provinces of China: Evidence from apatite fission track and balanced cross–section (in Chinese). Earth Sci—J China Univ Geosci, 35: 161–174Google Scholar
  45. Morgan J V, Hadwin M, Warner M R, Barton P J, Morgan R P L. 1994. The polarity of deep seismic reflections from the lithospheric mantle: Evidence for a relict subduction zone. Tectonophysics, 232: 319–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nelson K D. 1991. A unified view of craton evolution motivated by recent deep seismic reflection and refraction results. Geophys J Int, 105: 25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nelson K D, Zhao W, Brown L D, Kuo J, Che J, Liu X, Klemperer S L, Makovsky Y, Meissner R, Mechie J, Kind R, Wenzel F, Ni J, Nabelek J, Leshou C, Tan H, Wei W, Jones A G, Booker J, Unsworth M, Kidd W S F, Hauck M, Alsdorf D, Ross A, Cogan M, Wu C, Sandvol E, Edwards M. 1996. Partially molten middle crust beneath southern Tibet: Synthesis of project indepth results. Science, 274: 1684–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Oueity J, Clowes R M. 2010. Paleoproterozoic subduction in northwestern Canada from near–vertical and wide–angle seismic reflection data. Can J Earth Sci, 47: 35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Qiu Y X, Zhang Y C, Ma W P. 1998. Tectonics and geological evolution of Xuefeng intracontinental orogene, south China (in Chinese). Geol J China Univ, 4: 432–443Google Scholar
  50. Rao J R. 1996. Yao–Chengbu fault zone of the lithospheric collision under the crust. In: Wu J D, ed. New Advances in Hunan Geosciences (in Chinese). Changsha: Hunan Science Technology Press. 144–148Google Scholar
  51. Rowley D B. 1996. Age of initiation of collision between India and Asia: A review of stratigraphic data. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 145: 1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Royden L H, Clark B B B C, King R W, Wang E, Chen Z L, Shen F, Liu Y P. 1997. Surface deformation and lower crustal flow in eastern Tibet. Science, 276: 788–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Seton M, Muller R D. 2008. Reconstructing the junction between Panthalassa and Tethys since the Early Cretaceous. Sydney: PESAE eastern Australasian Basins Symposium III. 263–266Google Scholar
  54. Shu L S. 2012. An analysis of principal features of tectonic evolution in South China Block (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 31: 1035–1053Google Scholar
  55. Stewart D B, Unger J D, Phillips J D, Goldsmith R, Poole W H, Spencer C P, Green A G, Loiselle M C, St–Julien P. 1986. The Quebec–western Maine seismic reflection profile: Setting and first year results. In: Barazangi M, Brown L, eds. Reflection Seismology: The Continental Crust, 14: 189–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tang R C, Huang Z Z, Qian H, Gong Y, Wen D H, Ma S H, Zhou R J. 1996. The basic characteristics of active faults in the Chengdu rift–subsidence area and determination of their potential seismic capacity (in Chinese). Chin Earthq, 12: 285–293Google Scholar
  57. Tapponnier P, Peltzer G, Le Dain A Y, Armijo R, Cobbold P. 1982. Propagating extrusion tectonics in Asia: New insights from simple experiments with plasticine. Geology, 10: 611–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tapponnier P, Xu Z Q, Roger F, Meyer B, Arnaud N, Wittlinger G, Yang J S. 2001. Oblique stepwise rise and growth of the Tibet Plateau. Science, 294: 1671–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. van der Voo R, Spakman W, Bijwaard H. 1999. Mesozoic subducted slabs under Siberia. Nature, 397: 246–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mooney W D, Brocher T M. 1987. Coincident seismic reflection/refraction studies of the continental lithosphere: A global review. Rev Geophys, 25: 723–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang C Y, Wu J P, Lou H, Zhou M D, Bai Z M. 2003. P–wave crusta1 velocity structure in the western Sichuan and eastern Tibetan region (in Chinese). Sci China Ser D–Earth Sci, 33(Supp1): 181–189Google Scholar
  62. Wang C Y, Han W B, Wu J P, Lou H, Chan W W. 2007. Crustal structure beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its tectonic implications. J Geophys Res, 112: B07307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wang C Y, Lou H, Lu Z Y, Wu J P, Chang L J, Dai S G, Tang F T, Zhu L, Silver P. 2008. S–wave crustal and upper mantle’ velocity structure in the eastern Tibetan plateau–Deep environment of lower crust flow. Sci China Ser D–Earth Sci, 38: 22–32Google Scholar
  64. Wang E C, Meng Q R. 2009. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt. Sci China Ser D–Earth Sci, 52: 579–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wang H Y, Gao R, Zeng L S, Zeng L S, Kuang Z Y, Xue A M, Li W H, Xiong X S, Huang W Y. 2014. Crustal structure and Moho geometry of the northeastern Tibetan plateau as revealed by SinoProbe–02 deep seismic–reflection profiling. Tectonophysics, 636: 32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Wang W T, Jia D, Li C Y, Zheng W J, Wei Z Y. 2008. Preliminary investigation on deformation characteristics and activity of Longquanshan Fault belt in Sichuan (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 30: 968–979Google Scholar
  67. Wang Z J, Wang H C, He H L, Ran Y K, Zheng W J, Zhao Q, Yu T H, Wang J, Chu H Y. 2016. Dating of the last active age for Wulong ridge section of Qiyaoshan–Jinfoshan faults (in Chinese). Earthq Res Sichuan, 158: 25–29Google Scholar
  68. Wang X B, Zhu Y T, Zhao X K, Yu N, Li K, Gao S Q, Hu Q L. 2009. Deep conductivity characteristics of the Longmen Shan, Eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 52: 564–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wang X B, Zhang G, Fang H, Luo W, Zhang W, Zhong Q, Cai X L, Lu H Z. 2014. Crust and upper mantle resistivity structure at middle section of Longmenshan, eastern Tibetan plateau. Tectonophysics, 619–620: 143–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Xiao Q H, Liu Y, Feng Y F, Qiu R Z, Zhang Y. 2010. A preliminary study of the relationship between Mesozoic lithosphere evolution in eastern China and the subduction of the Pacific plate (in Chinese). Geol China, 37: 1092–1101Google Scholar
  71. Xie J L, Yang K G, Ma C Q. 2006. The tectonic deformation characteristics of Xiangxi Huayuan–Zhangjiajie fault zone and ESR dating (in Chinese). Geol J Chin Univ, 12: 14–21Google Scholar
  72. Xu X W, Wen X Z, Chen G H, Yu G H. 2008. Discovery of the Longriba Faults, eastern part of the Bayankela tectonic block and its geodynamic implications (in Chinese). Sci China Ser D–Earth Sci, 38: 529–542Google Scholar
  73. Xu Z Q, Li H Q, Hou L W, Fu X F, Chen W, Zeng L S, Cai Z H, Chen F Y. 2007. Uplift of the Longmen–Jinping rogenic belt along the eastern margin of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau: Large–scale detachment faulting and extrusion mechanism (in Chinese). Geol Bull China, 26: 1262–1276Google Scholar
  74. Yan D P, Zhou M F, Song H L, Wang X W, Malpas J. 2003. Origin and tectonic significance of a Mesozoic multi–layer over–thrust system within the Yangtze Block (South China). Tectonophysics, 361: 239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Yang K F, Yang K G, Ma C Q. 2004. The deformation characteristics and ESR dating of Anhua–Xupu fault belts, Xuefeng mountains (in Chinese). Geotect Metall, 28: 263–269Google Scholar
  76. Yin A, Harrison T M. 2000. Geologic evolution of the Himalayan–Tibetan orogen. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci, 28: 211–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Zorin Y A, Mordvinova V V, Turutanov E K, Belichenko B G, Artemyev A A, Kosarev G L, Gao S S. 2002. Low seismic velocity layers in the Earth’s crust beneath Eastern Siberia (Russia) and Central Mongolia: Receiver function data and their possible geological implication. Tectonophysics, 359: 307–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yuan Z L, Li D M, Yi S H. 2000. The knowledge on Baojing–Cili overthrust fault belts (in Chinese). Geol Prospect, 36: 59–61Google Scholar
  79. Zeng R S, Sun W G. 1992. Seismic activity and source mechanism of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas and discussion of the eastward flow of the plateau (in Chinese). Acta seismol Sin, 14: 531–561Google Scholar
  80. Zhang S B, Zheng Y F. 2013. Formation and evolution of Precambrian continental lithosphere in South China. Gondwana Res, 23: 1241–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang G W, Guo A L, Wang Y J, Li S Z, Dong Y P, Liu S F, He D F, Cheng S Y, Lu R K, Yao A P. 2013. Tectonics of South China continent and its implications. Sci China Earth Sci, 56: 1804–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang L T, Jin S, Wei W B, Ye G F, Duan S X, Dong H, Zhang F, Xie C L. 2012. Electrical structure of crust and upper mantle beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and the Sichuan basin (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 55: 4126–4137Google Scholar
  83. Zhang X Z, Zeng Z, Gao R, Hou H S, Guo Y, Pu J B, Fu Q L. 2015. The evidence from the deep seismic reflection profile on the subduction and collision of Jiamusi and songnen massifs in the northeastern China (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys (in Chinese), 58: 4415–4424Google Scholar
  84. Zhang Y Q, Dong S W, Li J H, Shi W. 2011. Mesozoic multi–directional compressional tectonics and formation–reformation of Sichuan basin (in Chinese). Geol China, 38: 233–250Google Scholar
  85. Zhang Y Q, Dong S W, Li J H, Cui J J, Shi W, Su J B, Li Y. 2012. The new progress in the study of mesozoic tectonics of south China (in Chinese). Acta Geosci Sin, 33: 257–279Google Scholar
  86. Zhang Y Q, Li H L. 2016. Late Cenozoic tectonic events in east Tibetan Plateau and extrusion–related orogenic system (in Chinese). Geol China, 43: 1829–1852Google Scholar
  87. Zhang Y Q, Xu X B, Jia D, Shu L S. 2009. Deformation record of the change from Indosinian collision–related tectonic system to Yanshanian subduction–related tectonic systemin South China during the Early Mesozoic. Earth Sci Frontiers, 16: 234–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Zhang Y Q, Yang N, Chen W, Ma Y S, Meng H. 2003. Late Cenozoic tectonic deformation history of the East–West geomorphological boundary zone of China and uplift process of the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau (in Chinese). Earth Sci Front, 10: 599–612Google Scholar
  89. Zhang Z J, Yuan X H, Chen Y, Tian X B, Rainer K, Li X Q, Teng J W. 2010. Seismic signature of the collision between the east Tibetan escape flow and the Sichuan Basin. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 292: 254–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Zhao G Z, Chen X B, Wang L F, Wang J J, Tang J, Wan Z S, Zhang J H, Zhan Y, Xiao Q B. 2008. Evidence of crustalchannel flow in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau from MT measurements (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 53: 1887–1893Google Scholar
  91. Zhao Q G, Lou H, Wang C Y. 2011. Teleseismic tomography of deep velocity structure in the eastern edge of Tibetan plateau (in Chinese). CT Theory Appl, 20: 311–320Google Scholar
  92. Zheng W J, Wang W T, Li C Y, Wei Z Y, Gao X. 2008. The deformation of the Xiongpo anticline and the activity of Pujiang–Xinjin fault (in Chinese). Seismol Geol, 30: 957–967Google Scholar
  93. Zheng Y F, Xiao W J, Zhao G. 2013. Introduction to tectonics of China. Gondwana Res, 23: 1189–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Zhou R J, Tang R C, Qian H, Wen D H, Ma S H, He Y L, Pu X H. 1997. An application of seismotectonic analogy to the Hua yingshan fault zone in east Sichuan (in Chinese). J Seismol Res, 20: 316–322Google Scholar
  95. Zhu J S, Wang X B, Yang Y H, Fan J, Cheng X Q. 2017. The crustal flow beneath the eastern margin of the Tibetan plateau and its process of dynamics (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 60: 2038–2057Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yingkang Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jianwei Gao
    • 1
  • Jian Han
    • 2
  • Yu’e Yang
    • 3
  1. 1.Geological Cores and Samples Center of Land and ResourcesCGSSanheChina
  2. 2.Institute of GeomechanicsChinese Academy of Geological SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Sinopec Geophysical Company Limited, North China BranchNanyangChina

Personalised recommendations