Differential physiological responses of the coastal cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 to elevated pCO2 at lag, exponential, and stationary growth phases
We studied the effects of expected end-of-the-century pCO2 (1000 ppm) on the photosynthetic performance of a coastal marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 during the lag, exponential, and stationary growth phases. Elevated pCO2 significantly stimulated growth, and enhanced the maximum cell density during the stationary phase. Under ambient pCO2 conditions, the lag phase lasted for 6 days, while elevated pCO2 shortened the lag phase to two days and extended the exponential phase by four days. The elevated pCO2 increased photosynthesis levels during the lag and exponential phases, but reduced them during the stationary phase. Moreover, the elevated pCO2 reduced the saturated growth light (Ik) and increased the light utilization efficiency (α) during the exponential and stationary phases, and elevated the phycobilisome:chlorophyll a (Chl a) ratio. Furthermore, the elevated pCO2 reduced the particulate organic carbon (POC):Chl a and particulate organic nitrogen (PON):Chl a ratios during the lag and stationary phases, but enhanced them during the exponential phase. Overall, Synechococcus showed differential physiological responses to elevated pCO2 during different growth phases, thus providing insight into previous studies that focused on only the exponential phase, which may have biased the results relative to the effects of elevated pCO2 in ecology or aquaculture.
KeywordsElevated pCO2 Lag Exponential and stationary phases Photosynthetic performance Synechococcus
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFA0601402), the China SOA Grant Associated with Task (Grant No. GASI-03-01-02-05), the CNOOC Zhanjiang Branch (Grant No. CNOOC-KJ 125 FZDXM 00 ZJ 001-2014), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41606092 & 41676156). This study is a contribution to the international IMBER project.
- Chiu W, Dai W, Fu C, Raytcheva D, Flanagan J, Khant H A, Liu X, Rochat R H, Haase-Pettingell C, Piret J, Ludtke S J, Nagayama K, Schmid M F, King J A. 2014. Visualizing virus assembly intermediates inside marine cyanobacteria by zernike phase contrast electron cryo-tomography. Microsc Microanal, 20: 202–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dufresne A, Ostrowski M, Scanlan D J, Garczarek L, Mazard S, Palenik B P, Paulsen I T, Tandeau de Marsac N, Wincker P, Dossat C, Ferriera S, Johnson J, Post A F, Hess W R, Partensky F. 2008. Unravelling the genomic mosaic of a ubiquitous genus of marine cyanobacteria. Genome Biol, 9: R90–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Flombaum P, Gallegos J L, Gordillo R A, Rincón J, Zabala L L, Jiao N, Karl D M, Li W K W, Lomas M W, Veneziano D, Vera C S, Vrugt J A, Martiny A C. 2013. Present and future global distributions of the marine Cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 110: 9824–9829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Indermühle A, Stocker T F, Joos F, Fischer H, Smith H J, Wahlen M. 1999. Holocene carbon-cycle dynamics based on CO2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature, 29: 605–609Google Scholar
- IPCC. 2001. Climate change 2001: The scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. 881Google Scholar
- Onizuka T, Akiyama H, Endo S, Kanai S, Hirano M, Tanaka S, Miyasaka H. 2002. CO2 response element and corresponding trans-acting factor of the promoter for ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 found by an improved electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Plant Cell Physiol, 43: 660–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Owens T G, Wold E R. 1986. Light-harvesting function in the diatom phaeodactylum tricornutum i. isolation and characterization of pigmentprotein complexes. Plant Physiol, 80: 732Google Scholar
- Partensky F, Blanchot J, Vaulot D. 1999. Differential distribution and ecology of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus in oceanic waters: A review, in Marine Cyanobacteria, eds L. Charpy and A. Larkum (Monaco: Musée Océanographique), 457–475Google Scholar
- Platt T, Gallegos C L, Harrison W G. 1980. Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton. J Mar Res, 38: 687–701Google Scholar
- Qu C F, Liu F M, Zheng Z, Wang Y B, Li X G, Yuan H M, Li N, An M L, Wang X X, He Y Y, Li L L, Miao J L. 2017. Effects of ocean acidification on the physiological performance and carbon production of the Antarctic sea ice diatom Nitzschia sp. ICE-H. Mar Pollut Bull, 120: 184–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wulff A, Karlberg M, Olofsson M, Torstensson A, Riemann L, Steinhoff F. 2016. Climate-driven change in a Baltic Sea summer microplanktonic community-desalination play a more important role than ocean acidification. Biogeosci Discus, 1–32Google Scholar
- Yoshimura T, Nishioka J, Suzuki K, Hattori H. 2009. Impacts of elevated CO2 on phytoplankton community composition and organic carbon dynamics in nutrient-depleted Okhotsk Sea surface waters. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol, 6: 205–216Google Scholar