Optimal reduction of anthropogenic emissions for air pollution control and the retrieval of emission source from observed pollutants Ӏ. Application of incomplete adjoint operator
- 33 Downloads
The ultimate solution to anthropogenic air pollution depends on an adjustment and upgrade of industrial and energy structures. Before this process can be completed, reducing the anthropogenic pollutant emissions is an effective measure. This is a problem belonging to “Natural Cybernetics”, i.e., the problem of air pollution control should be solved together with the weather prediction; however, this is very complicated. Considering that heavy air pollution usually occurs in stable weather conditions and that the feedbacks between air pollutants and meteorological changes are insufficient, we propose a simplified natural cybernetics method. Here, an off-line air pollution evolution equation is first solved with data from a given anthropogenic emission inventory under the predicted weather conditions, and then, a related “incomplete adjoint problem” is solved to obtain the optimal reduction of anthropogenic emissions. Usually, such solution is sufficient for satisfying the air quality and economical/ social requirements. However, a better solution can be obtained by iteration after updating the emission inventory with the reduced anthropogenic emissions. Then, this paper discusses the retrieval of the pollutant emission source with a known spatio-temporal distribution of the pollutant concentrations, and a feasible mathematical method to achieve this is proposed. The retrieval of emission source would also help control air pollution.
KeywordsAir pollution Optimal control Source retrieval Incomplete adjoint operator
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
The authors thank Dr. Zhang Peng in the National Satellite Meteorological Center for providing the satellite monitoring data of air pollutions and many useful discussions, and Prof. Zhu Jiang for the helpful discussions. Besides, we wish to thank the anonymous reviewers whose suggestions improved the paper. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41630530) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2016YFC0209000).
- Luo G, Wang Z F. 2006. A global environmental atmospheric transport model (GEATM): Model description and validation (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 30: 504–518Google Scholar
- Liu F, Huang S X. 2011. Optimization Control Theory of Atmospheric Environmental Risk and Its Application (in Chinese). Beijing: China Meteorological PressGoogle Scholar
- Huang S X, Zeng Q C, Hu F, Wang Z F, Liu F. 2014. Optimal control theory framework for nuclear and chemical disaster emergency based on the natural cybernetics (in Chinese). J Univ Chin Acad Sci, 32: 200–206Google Scholar
- Zeng Q C. 1996. Natural Cybernetics (in Chinese). Bull Chin Acad Sci, (1): 16–21Google Scholar
- Zeng Q C, Wu L, Hong Z X. 2012. Cybernetics in the artificial weather modification. III: A framework of artificial weather modification based on the natural cybernetics (in Chinese). Clim Environm Res, 17: 986–990Google Scholar
- Zhang Q, Klimont Z, Streets D, Huo H, He K B. 2006. An anthropogenic particle matter emission model for China and emission inventory for the year 2001 (in Chinese). Progr Nat Sci, 16: 223–231Google Scholar
- Zeng Q C. 1995. Silt sedimentation and relevant engineering problem—An example of Natural Cybernetics (Invited lecture). Proceedings of Invited lectures, 3rd International Congress on Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Hamburg, Germany, July 3–5, 1995. In: Klaus Kirchgässner, et al. eds. Mathem Res, 87: 3–8Google Scholar
- Zhu J, Wang P. 2006. Ensemble kalman smoother and ensemble Kalman filter approaches to the joint air qual ity state and emission estimation problem (in Chinese). Chin J Atmos Sci, 30: 871–882Google Scholar