Science China Earth Sciences

, Volume 62, Issue 1, pp 324–348 | Cite as

Quaternary integrative stratigraphy and timescale of China

  • Chenglong DengEmail author
  • Qingzhen Hao
  • Zhengtang Guo
  • Rixiang Zhu


Quaternary strata in China mainly comprise continental deposits in a variety of depositional settings. The continental Quaternary in temperate northern China consists mainly of eolian and fluvio-lacustrine deposits; that in subtropical southern China, mainly of vermiculated red soils, cave/fissure deposits, and fluvio-lacustrine deposits; and that in the alpine Tibetan Plateau, mainly of fluvio-lacustrine and piedmont deposits. The marine Quaternary in China consists of detrital deposits and biogenic reef deposits. The integration of biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, climatostratigraphy and an astronomically calibrated chronology has led to the establishment of high-precision climatochronostratigraphic timescales for the detrital marine Quaternary in the South China Sea and the loess-paleosol sequence in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Extremely high-precision 230Th dating has provided a high-precision absolute age model for cave stalagmites over the past 640000 years as well as high-resolution oxygen isotope records representing orbital- to suborbital-scale climate changes. By combining magnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, robust chronostratigraphic frameworks for non-eolian continental Quaternary deposits on the scale of Quaternary geomagnetic polarities have been established. The continental Pleistocene Series consists, from oldest to youngest, of the Nihewanian Stage of the Lower Pleistocene, the Zhoukoudianian Stage of the Middle Pleistocene, and the Salawusuan Stage of the Upper Pleistocene. Stages of the continental Holocene Series have not yet been established. This review summarizes recent developments in the Quaternary chronostratigraphy of representative Quaternary strata and associated faunas, and then proposes an integrative chronostratigraphic framework and a stratigraphic correlation scheme for Quaternary continental strata in China. In the near-future, it is hoped to establish not only a Chinese continental Quaternary climatochronostratigraphic chart on the scale of glacial-interglacial cycles but also a Quaternary integrative chronostratigraphic chart including both continental and marine strata in China.


Quaternary Chronostratigraphy Magnetic stratigraphy Biostratigraphy Climatostratigraphy China 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We are grateful to Profs. Jiayu Rong and Shuzhong Shen for their suggestion to write this review; to Prof. Shuzhong Shen, Dr. Junyi Ge, and the two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and suggestions for improving the manuscript; to Dr. Lu Sun for help with drafting figures; and to Dr. Jan Bloemendal for improving the English. Chenglong Deng thanks Lu Sun, Liang Yi, Caicai Liu, Shihu Li, Shuhui Cai, Jianxing Liu, Qinmian Xu, Shixia Yang, Ping Liu, Yan Zhang and Suzhen Liu for useful discussion. This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41690110, 41621004 and L152401).


  1. Aguirre E, Pasini G. 1985. The Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Episodes, 8: 116–120Google Scholar
  2. An Z S, Clemens S C, Shen J, Qiang X K, Jin Z D, Sun Y B, Prell W L, Luo J J, Wang S M, Xu H. 2011. Glacial-interglacial Indian summer monsoon dynamics. Science, 333: 719–723Google Scholar
  3. An Z S, Ho C K. 1989. New magnetostratigraphic dates of Lantian Homo erectus. Quat Res, 32: 213–221Google Scholar
  4. Bae C J, Wang W, Zhao J, Huang S, Tian F, Shen G. 2014. Modern human teeth from Late Pleistocene Luna Cave (Guangxi, China). Quat Int, 354: 169–183Google Scholar
  5. Barbour G B. 1924. Preliminary observations in the Kalgan Area. Bull Geol Soc China, 3: 153–168Google Scholar
  6. Bien M N. 1940. Preliminary observation on the Cenozoic geology of Yunnan. Bull Geol Soc China, 20: 179–194Google Scholar
  7. Black D, Teilhard de Chardin P, Young C C, Pei W C. 1933. Fossil Man in China: The Choukoutien cave deposits with a synopsis of our present knowledge of the Late Cenozoic in China. Mem Geol Survey China (Ser A), 11: 1–174Google Scholar
  8. Chen T M, Yuan S X, Gao S J, Wang L X, Zhao G Y. 1982. Dating of the Peking Man site: Uranium series dating of the Xujiayao (Hsü-Chia-Yao) site (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 1: 91–95Google Scholar
  9. Chen T M, Zhou L P. 2009. Dating of the Peking Man site: A comparison between existing chronology and the 26Al/10Be burial ages (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 28: 285–291Google Scholar
  10. Cheng H, Edwards R L, Broecker W S, Denton G H, Kong X, Wang Y, Zhang R, Wang X. 2009. Ice age terminations. Science, 326: 248–252Google Scholar
  11. Cheng H, Lawrence Edwards R, Shen C C, Polyak V J, Asmerom Y, Woodhead J, Hellstrom J, Wang Y, Kong X, Spötl C, Wang X, Calvin Alexander Jr. E. 2013. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 371-372: 82–91Google Scholar
  12. Cheng H, Edwards R L, Sinha A, Spötl C, Yi L, Chen S, Kelly M, Kathayat G, Wang X, Li X, Kong X, Wang Y, Ning Y, Zhang H. 2016. The Asian monsoon over the past 640000 years and ice age terminations. Nature, 534: 640–646Google Scholar
  13. Cheng Y Q, Wang Z J, Huang Z G. 2009. Stratigraphical Lexicon of China (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 1–411Google Scholar
  14. Chesner C A, Rose W I. 1991. Stratigraphy of the Toba Tuffs and the evolution of the Toba Caldera Complex, Sumatra, Indonesia. Bull Volcanol, 53: 343–356Google Scholar
  15. Chou M C. 1957. Characteristic and correlation of the Tertiary and early Quaternary mammalian faunas from southern China (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 8: 394–400Google Scholar
  16. Chou M C. 1961. Occurrence of Enhydriodon at Yuanmo, Yunnan (in Chinese). Verteb PalAsia, 5: 164–167Google Scholar
  17. Ciochon R, Long V T, Larick R, Gonzalez L, Grun R, de Vos J, Yonge C, Taylor L, Yoshida H, Reagan M. 1996. Dated co-occurrence of Homo erectus and Gigantopithecus from Tham Khuyen Cave, Vietnam. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 93: 3016–3020Google Scholar
  18. Deng C. 2008. Paleomagnetic and mineral magnetic investigation of the Baicaoyuan loess-paleosol sequence of the western Chinese Loess Plateau over the last glacial-interglacial cycle and its geological implications. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 9: Q04034Google Scholar
  19. Deng C, Liu Q, Wang W, Liu C. 2007. Chemical overprint on the natural remanent magnetization of a subtropical red soil sequence in the Bose Basin, southern China. Geophys Res Lett, 34: L22308Google Scholar
  20. Deng C, Xie F, Liu C, Ao H, Pan Y, Zhu R. 2007. Magnetochronology of the Feiliang Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human adaptability to high northern latitudes in East Asia. Geophys Res Lett, 34: L14301Google Scholar
  21. Deng C, Shaw J, Liu Q, Pan Y, Zhu R. 2006a. Mineral magnetic variation of the Jingbian loess/paleosol sequence in the northern Loess Plateau of China: Implications for Quaternary development of Asian aridification and cooling. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 241: 248–259Google Scholar
  22. Deng C, Wei Q, Zhu R, Wang H, Zhang R, Ao H, Chang L, Pan Y. 2006b. Magnetostratigraphic age of the Xiantai Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin and implications for early human colonization of Northeast Asia. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 244: 336–348Google Scholar
  23. Deng C, Zhu R, Zhang R, Ao H, Pan Y. 2008. Timing of the Nihewan formation and faunas. Quat Res, 69: 77–90Google Scholar
  24. Deng T. 2006. Chinese Neogene mammal biochronology (in Chinese). Verteb PalAsia, 44: 143–163Google Scholar
  25. Deng T, Xue X X. 1997. Redemonstrating the first appearance of the genus Equus as a sign of the lower boundary of the Quaternary (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 21: 109–116Google Scholar
  26. Deng T, Hou S K. 2011. The Mazegouan Stage of the continental Pliocene Series in China (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 35: 237–249Google Scholar
  27. Deng T, Hou S K, Wang T M, Mu Y Q. 2010. The Gaozhuangian Stage of the continental Pliocene Series in China (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 34: 225–240Google Scholar
  28. Ding Z L, Derbyshire E, Yang S L, Yu Z W, Xiong S F, Liu T S. 2002. Stacked 2.6-Ma grain size record from the Chinese loess based on five sections and correlation with the deep-sea δ 18O record. Paleoceanography, 17: 5–1–5-21Google Scholar
  29. Ding Z L, Liu T S. 1989. Progresses of loess research in China (Part 1): Loess stratigraphy (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 9: 24–35Google Scholar
  30. Ding Z L, Sun J M, Liu T S, Zhu R X, Yang S L, Guo B. 1998. Wind-blown origin of the Pliocene red clay formation in the central Loess Plateau, China. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 161: 135–143Google Scholar
  31. Ding Z, Yu Z, Rutter N W, Liu T. 1994. Towards an orbital time scale for chinese loess deposits. Quat Sci Rev, 13: 39–70Google Scholar
  32. Editorial Board of Chinese Geology, Institute of Geology of Academia Sinica. 1956. Chinese Regional Stratigraphic Chart (Draft) (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 693Google Scholar
  33. Edwards R, Chen J H, Wasserburg G J. 1987. 238U-234U-230Th-232Th systematics and the precise measurement of time over the past 500,000 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 81: 175–192Google Scholar
  34. Fang X. 2002. Loess in Kunlun Mountains and its implications on desert development and Tibetan Plateau uplift in west China. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 45: 289–299Google Scholar
  35. Fu C, An Z, Qiang X, Bloemendal J, Song Y, Chang H. 2013. Magnetostratigraphic determination of the age of ancient Lake Qinghai, and record of the East Asian monsoon since 4.63 Ma. Geology, 41: 875–878Google Scholar
  36. Ge J, Guo Z, Zhan T, Yao Z, Deng C, Oldfield F. 2012. Magnetostratigraphy of the Xihe loess-soil sequence and implication for late Neogene deformation of the West Qinling Mountains. Geophys J Int, 189: 1399–1408Google Scholar
  37. Ge S L, Shi X F, Zhu R X, Liu Y G, Yin P, Liu L J. 2006. Magnetostratigraphy of borehole EY02-2 in the southern Yellow Sea and its paleoenvironmental significance. Chin Sci Bull, 51: 855–865Google Scholar
  38. Gibbard P L, Head M J, Walker M J C. 2010. Formal ratification of the Quaternary System/Period and the Pleistocene Series/Epoch with a base at 2.58 Ma. J Quat Sci, 25: 96–102Google Scholar
  39. Gradstein F M, Ogg J G, Smith A G. 2004. A Geologic Time Scale 2004. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 589Google Scholar
  40. Gradstein F M, Ogg J G, Schmitz M D, Ogg G M. 2012. The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 1144Google Scholar
  41. Guo Z T. 2017. Loess Plateau attests to the onsets of monsoon and deserts (in Chinese). Sci Sin Terrae, 47: 421–437Google Scholar
  42. Guo Z, Biscaye P, Wei L, Chen X, Peng S, Liu T. 2000. Summer monsoon variations over the last 1.2 Ma from the weathering of loess-soil sequences in China. Geophys Res Lett, 27: 1751–1754Google Scholar
  43. Guo Z T, Ruddiman W F, Hao Q Z, Wu H B, Qiao Y S, Zhu R X, Peng S Z, Wei J J, Yuan B Y, Liu T S. 2002. Onset of Asian desertification by 22 Myr ago inferred from loess deposits in China. Nature, 416: 159–163Google Scholar
  44. Han F, Bahain J J, Deng C, Boëda É, Hou Y, Wei G, Huang W, Garcia T, Shao Q, He C, Falguères C, Voinchet P, Yin G. 2017. The earliest evidence of hominid settlement in China: Combined electron spin resonance and uranium series (ESR/U-series) dating of mammalian fossil teeth from Longgupo cave. Quat Int, 434: 75–83Google Scholar
  45. Hao Q, Guo Z. 2004. Magnetostratigraphy of a late Miocene-Pliocene loess-soil sequence in the western Loess Plateau in China. Geophys Res Lett, 31: L09209Google Scholar
  46. Hao Q, Guo Z, Qiao Y, Xu B, Oldfield F. 2010. Geochemical evidence for the provenance of middle Pleistocene loess deposits in southern China. Quat Sci Rev, 29: 3317–3326Google Scholar
  47. Hao Q, Wang L, Oldfield F, Peng S, Qin L, Song Y, Xu B, Qiao Y, Bloemendal J, Guo Z. 2012. Delayed build-up of Arctic ice sheets during 400,000-year minima in insolation variability. Nature, 490: 393–396Google Scholar
  48. Heller F, Tung-sheng L. 1982. Magnetostratigraphical dating of loess deposits in China. Nature, 300: 431–433Google Scholar
  49. Heller F, Tungsheng L. 1984. Magnetism of Chinese loess deposits. Geophys J Int, 77: 125–141Google Scholar
  50. Heller F, Tung-sheng L. 1986. Palaeoclimatic and sedimentary history from magnetic susceptibility of loess in China. Geophys Res Lett, 13: 1169–1172Google Scholar
  51. Heslop D, Langereis C G, Dekkers M J. 2000. A new astronomical timescale for the loess deposits of Northern China. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 184: 125–139Google Scholar
  52. Hilgen F J, Lourens L J, Van Dam J A. 2012. The Neogene Period. In: Gradstein F M, Ogg J G, Schmitz M D, Ogg G M, eds. The Geologic Time Scale 2012, Vol. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 923–978Google Scholar
  53. Hou L H. 1985. Fossil birds from Zhoukoudian Loc. 1. In: Wu R K et al. Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 113–118Google Scholar
  54. Hou Y M, Potts R, Yuan B, Guo Z T, Deino A, Wang W, Clark J, Xie G, Huang W W. 2000. Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-like stone technology of the Bose Basin, South China. Science, 287: 1622–1626Google Scholar
  55. Hovan S A, Rea D K, Pisias N G, Shackleton N J. 1989. A direct link between the China loess and marine δ 18O records: Aeolian flux to the north Pacific. Nature, 340: 296–298Google Scholar
  56. Hu C K. 1985. The history of mammalian fauna of Locality 1 of Zhoukoudian and its recent advances. In: Wu R K, ed. Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 107–113Google Scholar
  57. Huang L. 1997. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea, and Neogene reticulofenestrid coccoliths size distribution pattern. Mar Micropaleont, 32: 31–57Google Scholar
  58. Jiang F C, Wu X H, Xiao H G, Zhao Z Z, Wang S M, Xue B. 1997. Age of the vermiculated red soil in Jiujiang area, central China (in Chinese). J Geomech, 3: 27–32Google Scholar
  59. Jin C Z, Qin D G, Pan W S, Tang Z L, Liu J Y, Wang Y, Deng C L, Zhang Y Q, Dong W, Tong H W. 2009. A newly discovered Gigantopithecus fauna from Sanhe Cave, Chongzuo, Guangxi, South China. Chin Sci Bull, 54: 788–797Google Scholar
  60. Jin C, Wang Y, Deng C, Harrison T, Qin D, Pan W, Zhang Y, Zhu M, Yan Y. 2014. Chronological sequence of the early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus faunas from cave sites in the Chongzuo, Zuojiang River area, South China. Quat Int, 354: 4–14Google Scholar
  61. Jin C Z, Zheng J J, Wang Y, Xu Q Q. 2008. The stratigraphic distribution and zoogeography of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from South China (in Chinese). Acta Anthropol Sin, 27: 304–317Google Scholar
  62. Kong L J, Shen G J, Wang W, Li D W, Zhao J X. 2012. U-series dating of Shizi Cave and age of the third terrace of the Bubing and Baise Basins, Guangxi, China (in Chinese). Earth and Environ, 40: 349–353Google Scholar
  63. Kong P, Jia J, Zheng Y. 2013. Cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial dating of the Paleolithic at Xihoudu, North China. J Human Evol, 64: 466–470Google Scholar
  64. Kukla G, Heller F, Ming L X, Chun X T, Sheng L T, Sheng A Z. 1988. Pleistocene climates in China dated by magnetic susceptibility. Geology, 16: 811–814Google Scholar
  65. Li B S, Jin H L, Zhu Y Z, Dong G R, Wen X H. 2004a. The Quaternary lithostrata in Salawusu River Valley and their geochronology (in Chinese). Acta Sediment Sin, 22: 676–682Google Scholar
  66. Li X, Zhao Q H, Huang B Q, Su X. 2004b. High-resolution age estimation of the Mid-Pleistocene impact event. Mar Geol Quat Geol, 24: 73–77Google Scholar
  67. Li X Q, Li C S, Lu H Y, Dodson J R, Wang Y F. 2004c. Paleovegetation and paleoclimate in middle-late Pliocene, Shanxi, central China. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 210: 57–66Google Scholar
  68. Li C K, Wu W Y, Qiu Z D. 1984. Chinese Neogene: subdivision and correlation (in Chinese). Verteb PalAsia, 22: 163–178Google Scholar
  69. Li P, Qian F, Ma X, Pu Q, Xing L, Ju S. 1976. Preliminary study on the age of the Yuanmou Man by paleomagnetic technique (in Chinese). Sci China, 6: 579–591Google Scholar
  70. Li S, Deng C, Yao H, Huang S, Liu C, He H, Pan Y, Zhu R. 2013. Magnetostratigraphy of the Dali Basin in Yunnan and implications for late Neogene rotation of the southeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau. J Geophys Res Solid Earth, 118: 791–807Google Scholar
  71. Li X S, Han Z Y, Lu H Y, Chen Y, Li Y, Yuan X K, Zhou Y W, Jiang M Y, Lv C J. 2018. Onset of Xiashu loess deposition in southern China by 0.9 Ma and its implications for regional aridification. Sci China Earth Sci, 61: 256–269Google Scholar
  72. Liang X R, Wei G J, Shao L, Li X H, Wang R C. 2001. Records of Toba eruptions in the South China Sea—Chemical characteristics of the glass shards from ODP 1143a. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 44: 871–878Google Scholar
  73. Liu C, Zhu X Y, Ye S J. 1977. A palaeomagnetic study on the cave-deposits of Zhoukoudian (Choukoutian), the locality of Sinanthropus (in Chinese). Sci Geol Sin, 12: 26–33Google Scholar
  74. Liu C C, Deng C L, Liu Q S, Zheng L T, Wang W, Xu X M, Huang S, Yuan B Y. 2010a. Mineral magnetism to probe into the nature of palaeomagnetic signals of subtropical red soil sequences in southern China. Geophys J Int, 181: 1395–1410Google Scholar
  75. Liu L J, Xu H Z, Cui Q P, Wang J. 2010b. Study on Quaternary stratigraphic division on Hebei Plain (in Chinese). Geogr Geo-Inf Sci, 26: 54–57Google Scholar
  76. Liu C, Xu X, Yuan B, Deng C. 2008. Magnetostratigraphy of the Qiliting section (SE China) and its implication for geochronology of the red soil sequences in southern China. Geophys J Int, 174: 107–117Google Scholar
  77. Liu J, Liu Q, Zhang X, Liu J, Wu Z, Mei X, Shi X, Zhao Q. 2016a. Magnetostratigraphy of a long Quaternary sediment core in the South Yellow Sea. Quat Sci Rev, 144: 1–15Google Scholar
  78. Liu P, Wu Z, Deng C, Tong H, Qin H, Li S, Yuan B, Zhu R. 2016b. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shanshenmiaozui mammalian fauna in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Quat Int, 400: 202–211Google Scholar
  79. Liu J X, Liu Q S, Shi X F, Wang C J, Chen J J. 2015. Progress of Quaternary chronological research in the Yellow Sea (in Chinese). Mar Geol Front, 31: 17–25Google Scholar
  80. Liu J, Shi X, Liu Q, Ge S, Liu Y, Yao Z, Zhao Q, Jin C, Jiang Z, Liu S, Qiao S, Li X, Li C, Wang C. 2014. Magnetostratigraphy of a greigitebearing core from the South Yellow Sea: Implications for remagnetization and sedimentation. J Geophys Res Solid Earth, 119: 7425–7441Google Scholar
  81. Liu P, Deng C, Li S, Cai S, Cheng H, Baoyin Y, Wei Q, Zhu R. 2012. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Xiashagou Fauna and implication for sequencing the mammalian faunas in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 315-316: 75–85Google Scholar
  82. Liu T S. 1985. Loess and the Environment. Beijing: China Ocean Press. 251Google Scholar
  83. Liu T S, Shi Y F, Wang R J, Zhao Q H, Jian Z M, Cheng X R, Wang P X, Wang S M, Yuan B Y, Wu X Z, Qiu Z X, Xu Q Q, Huang W B, Huang W W, An Z S, Lu H Y. 2000. Table of Chinese Quaternary stratigraphic correlation remarked with climate change (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 20: 108–128Google Scholar
  84. Liu T S, Zhang Z H. 1962. Loess in China (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 42: 1–14Google Scholar
  85. Liu X, Shen G, Tu H, Lu C, Granger D E. 2015. Initial 26Al/10Be burial dating of the hominin site Bailong Cave in Hubei Province, central China. Quat Int, 389: 235–240Google Scholar
  86. Lu H, Liu X, Zhang F, An Z, Dodson J. 1999. Astronomical calibration of loess-paleosol deposits at Luochuan, central Chinese Loess Plateau. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 154: 237–246Google Scholar
  87. Lu H, Zhang H, Wang S, Cosgrove R, Sun X, Zhao J, Sun D, Zhao C, Shen C, Wei M. 2011. Multiphase timing of hominin occupations and the paleoenvironment in Luonan Basin, Central China. Quat Res, 76: 142–147Google Scholar
  88. Lu H Y, Zhang H Y, Wang S J, Cosgrove R, Zhao C F, Stevens T, Zhao J. 2007. A preliminary survey on loess deposit in eastern Qinling Mountains (central China) and its implication for estimating age of the Pleistocene lithic artifacts (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 27: 559–567Google Scholar
  89. Luo X, Rehkämper M, Lee D C, Halliday A N. 1997. High precision 230Th/232Th and 234U/238U measurements using energy-filtered ICP magnetic sector multiple collector mass spectrometry. Int J Mass Spectrometry Ion Processes, 171: 105–117Google Scholar
  90. Mark D F, Renne P R, Dymock R C, Smith V C, Simon J I, Morgan L E, Staff R A, Ellis B S, Pearce N J G. 2017. High-precision 40Ar/39Ar dating of pleistocene tuffs and temporal anchoring of the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary. Quat Geochron, 39: 1–23Google Scholar
  91. Mei X, Li R, Zhang X, Liu Q, Liu J, Wang Z, Lan X, Liu J, Sun R. 2016. Evolution of the Yellow Sea warm current and the Yellow Sea cold water mass since the Middle Pleistocene. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 442: 48–60Google Scholar
  92. Min L R, Zhu G X, Guan Y Y. 2009. An analysis of the basic characteristics of the Upper Pleistocene Salawusuan Stage in the Salawusu River Valley, Inner Mongolia (in Chinese). Geol China, 36: 1208–1217Google Scholar
  93. National Commission on the Stratigraphy of China. 2017. Stratigraphical Guide of China and Its Explanation (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 1–61Google Scholar
  94. Nian X M, Zhou L P, Yuan B Y. 2013. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of terrestrial sediments in the Nihewan Basin and its implication for the evolution of ancient Nihewan lake (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 33: 403–414Google Scholar
  95. Pan Y X, Zhu R X, Liu Q S, Guo B, Yue L P, Wu H N. 2002. Geomagnetic episodes of the last 1.2 Myr recorded in Chinese loess. Geophys Res Lett, 29: 123–1–123-4Google Scholar
  96. Pei W C. 1957. The zoogeographical divisions of Quaternary mammalian faunas of China. Verteb PalAsia, 1: 9–24Google Scholar
  97. Pei W C. 1961. Fossil mammals of early Pleistocene age from Yuanmo (Ma-kai) of Yunnan (in Chinese). Verteb PalAsia, 5: 16–30Google Scholar
  98. Pei W C, Chou M C, Zheng J J. 1963. Cenozoic Erathem of China (in Chinese). In: National Commission on Stratigraphy of China, ed. Selected Scientific Reports at All-China Stratigraphic Congress. Beijing: Science Press. 1–31Google Scholar
  99. Pei W C, Huang W B. 1959. Some perspectives on the Sanmen Group (in Chinese). In: Chinese Association for Quaternary Research, ed. Proceedings of the Conference on Quaternary Geology of the Sanmenxia Basin. Beijing: Scicence Press. 3–20Google Scholar
  100. Pillans B, Gibbard P. 2012. The Quaternary Period. In: Gradstein F M, Ogg J G, Schmitz M D, Ogg G M, eds. The Geologic Time Scale 2012. Vol. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 979–1010Google Scholar
  101. Pu Q Y, Qian F. 1977. Study on the fossil human strata—the Yuanmo Formation (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 51: 89–100Google Scholar
  102. Qian F. 1999. Study on magnetostratigraphy in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in late Cenozoic (in Chinese). J Geomech, 5: 22–34Google Scholar
  103. Qian F, Zhou G X. 1991. Quaternary Geology and Paleoanthropology of Yuanmou, Yunnan, China (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 222Google Scholar
  104. Qian F, Zhang J X, Yin W D. 1985. Magnetic stratigraphy from the sediment of west wall and test pit of Locality 1 at Zhoukoudian (in Chinese). In: Wu R K, ed. Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian. Beijing: Science Press. 251–255Google Scholar
  105. Qiang X K, Xu X W, Chen T, Zhao H, Zheng H T. 2016. Spatial characteristics and influence factors of Matuyama-Brunhes polarity reversal boundary (MBB) in eolian sequences from the Chinese Loess Plateau (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 36: 1125–1138Google Scholar
  106. Qiao Y. 2003. Loess-soil sequences in southern Anhui Province: Magnetostratigraphy and paleoclimatic significance. Chin Sci Bull, 48: 2088–2093Google Scholar
  107. Qiao Y S, Liu D Y, Li C Z, Li M Z, Wang Y, Zhao Z Z. 2007. Magnetostratigraphy of a loess-soil sequence in the Garze area, western Sichuan (in Chinese). J Geomech, 13: 289–296Google Scholar
  108. Qiao Y S, Wang Y, Yao H T, Qi L, He Z X, Cheng Y, Peng S S, Ge J Y. 2015. Magnetostratigraphy of a loess-paleosol sequence from higher terrace of the Daduhe River in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its geological significance. Acta Geol Sin, 89: 316–317Google Scholar
  109. Qiu Z X. 2000. Nihewan fauna and Q/N boundary in China (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 20: 142–154Google Scholar
  110. Qiu Z X, Huang W L, Guo Z H. 1987. The Chinese hipparioniae fossils (in Chinese). Paleontol Sin New Ser C, 25: 1–250Google Scholar
  111. Qiu Z, Qiu Z. 1995. Chronological sequence and subdivision of Chinese Neogene mammalian faunas. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 116: 41–70Google Scholar
  112. Rink W J, Wei W, Bekken D, Jones H L. 2008. Geochronology of Ailuropoda-Stegodon fauna and Gigantopithecus in Guangxi Province, southern China. Quat Res, 69: 377–387Google Scholar
  113. Rio D, Sprovieri R, Castradori D, Di Stefano E. 1998. The Gelasian Stage (Upper Pliocene): A new unit of the global chronostratigraphic scale. Episodes, 21: 82–87Google Scholar
  114. Saylor J E, Quade J, Dettman D L, DeCelles P G, Kapp P A, Ding L. 2009. The late Miocene through present paleoelevation history of southwestern Tibet. Am J Sci, 309: 1–42Google Scholar
  115. Shao L, Zhu W L, Deng C L, Zhang Y C, Zhai S K. 2016. Reservoir Stratum Sedimentology of Carbonate Biogenic Reefs in Well Xike-1 From Xisha Islands, South China Sea: Chronostratigraphy and Paleoceanographic Environments (in Chinese). Wuhan: China University of Geosciences Press. 128Google Scholar
  116. Shao Q, Wang W, Deng C, Voinchet P, Lin M, Zazzo A, Douville E, Dolo J M, Falguères C, Bahain J J. 2014. ESR, U-series and paleomagnetic dating of Gigantopithecus fauna from Chuifeng Cave, Guangxi, southern China. Quat Res, 82: 270–280Google Scholar
  117. Shao Q, Wang Y, Voinchet P, Zhu M, Lin M, Rink W J, Jin C, Bahain J J. 2017. U-series and ESR/U-series dating of the Stegodon-Ailuropoda fauna at Black Cave, Guangxi, southern China with implications for the timing of the extinction of Gigantopithecus blacki. Quaternary Int, 434: 65–74Google Scholar
  118. Shen C C, Lawrence Edwards R, Cheng H, Dorale J A, Thomas R B, Bradley Moran S, Weinstein S E, Edmonds H N. 2002. Uranium and thorium isotopic and concentration measurements by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chem Geol, 185: 165–178Google Scholar
  119. Shen G, Gao X, Gao B, Granger D E. 2009. Age of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus determined with 26Al/10Be burial dating. Nature, 458: 198–200Google Scholar
  120. Shi N, Cao J X, Konigsson L K. 1993. Late Cenozoic vegetational history and the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary in the Yushe Basin, S.E. Shanxi, China. Grana, 32: 260–271Google Scholar
  121. Singer B S. 2014. A Quaternary geomagnetic instability time scale. Quat Geochron, 21: 29–52Google Scholar
  122. Singer B S, Guillou H, Jicha B R, Zanella E, Camps P. 2014. Refining the Quaternary Geomagnetic Instability Time Scale (GITS): Lava flow recordings of the Blake and Post-Blake excursions. Quat Geochron, 21: 16–28Google Scholar
  123. Stevens T, Armitage S J, Lu H, Thomas D S G. 2006. Sedimentation and diagenesis of Chinese loess: Implications for the preservation of continuous, high-resolution climate records. Geology, 34: 849–852Google Scholar
  124. Sun D, Liu D, Chen M, An Z, John S. 1997. Magnetostratigraphy and palaeoclimate of Red Clay sequences from Chinese Loess Plateau. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 40: 337–343Google Scholar
  125. Sun L, Deng C, Wang W, Liu C, Kong Y, Wu B, Liu S, Ge J, Qin H, Zhu R. 2017a. Magnetostratigraphy of Plio–Pleistocene fossiliferous cave sediments in the Bubing Basin, southern China. Quat Geochronology, 37: 68–81Google Scholar
  126. Sun X, Lu H, Wang S, Yi L, Li Y, Bahain J J, Voinchet P, Hu X, Zeng L, Zhang W, Zhuo H. 2017b. Early human settlements in the southern Qinling Mountains, central China. Quat Sci Rev, 164: 168–186Google Scholar
  127. Sun L, Wang Y, Liu C, Zuo T, Ge J, Zhu M, Jin C, Deng C, Zhu R. 2014. Magnetochronological sequence of the Early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus faunas in Chongzuo, Guangxi, southern China. Quat Int, 354: 15–23Google Scholar
  128. Sun Y, Clemens S C, An Z, Yu Z. 2006. Astronomical timescale and palaeoclimatic implication of stacked 3.6-Myr monsoon records from the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quat Sci Rev, 25: 33–48Google Scholar
  129. Tedford R H, Flynn L J, Zhanxiang Q, Opdyke N D, Downs W R. 1991. Yushe Basin, China; Paleomagnetically calibrated mammalian biostratigraphic standard from the late Neogene of eastern Asia. J Vert Paleont, 11: 519–526Google Scholar
  130. Tedford R H, Qiu Z X, Flynn L J. 2013. Late Cenozoic Yushe Basin, Shanxi Province, China: Geology and Fossil Mammals. Vol. I: History, Geology and Magnetostratigraphy. Dordrecht: Springer. 109Google Scholar
  131. Teilhard de Chardin P, Licent E. 1924. On the Geology of the Northern, Western and Southern Borders of the Ordos, China. Bull Geol Soc China, 3: 37–44Google Scholar
  132. Teilhard de Chardin P, Piveteau J. 1930. Les mammifères fossiles de Nihowan (Chine). Annales de Paléontologie, 19: 1–134Google Scholar
  133. Tian J, Wang P, Cheng X, Li Q. 2002. Astronomically tuned Plio–Pleistocene benthic δ 18 O record from South China Sea and Atlantic–Pacific comparison. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 203: 1015–1029Google Scholar
  134. Tong G B, Shi Y, Zheng H R, Zhang J, Lin F, He Q L, Song X H, Liu Z X, Qiao G D, Zhang J X, Yang X D, Zhang W Q. 1998. Quaternary stratigraphy in Yinchuan Basin (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 22: 42–51Google Scholar
  135. Tong H W, Li H, Xie J Y. 2008. Revisions of some taxa of the Salawusu Fauna from Sjara-Osso-Gol area, Neimongol, China (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 28: 1106–1113Google Scholar
  136. Walker M, Johnsen S, Rasmussen S O, Steffensen J P, Popp T, Gibbard P, Hoek W, Lowe J, Andrews J, Bjorck S, Cwynar L, Hughen K, Kershaw P, Kromer B, Litt T, Lowe D J, Nakagawa T, Newnham R, Schwande J. 2008. The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Holocene Series/Epoch (Quaternary System/Period) in the NGRIP ice core. Episodes, 31: 264–267Google Scholar
  137. Wang H. 1988. An early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Dali, Shaanxi (in Chinese). Verteb PalAsia, 26: 59–72Google Scholar
  138. Wang H, Deng C, Zhu R, Wei Q, Hou Y, Boëda E. 2005a. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Donggutuo and Maliang Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Quat Res, 64: 1–11Google Scholar
  139. Wang X, Løvlie R, Yang Z, Pei J, Zhao Z, Sun Z. 2005b. Remagnetization of Quaternary eolian deposits: A case study from SE Chinese Loess Plateau. Geochem Geophys Geosyst, 6: Q06H18Google Scholar
  140. Wang P, Zhao Q, Jian Z, Cheng X, Huang W, Tian J, Wang J, Li Q, Li B, Su X. 2003. Thirty million year deep sea records in the South China Sea. Chin Sci Bull, 48: 2524–2535Google Scholar
  141. Wang S F, Zhang W L, Fang X M, Dai S, Kempf O. 2008. Magnetostratigraphy of the Zanda basin in southwest Tibet Plateau and its tectonic implications. Chin Sci Bull, 53: 1393–1400Google Scholar
  142. Wang S. 2002. Sedimentary records of environmental evolution in the Sanmen Lake Basin and the Yellow River running through the Sanmenxia Gorge eastward into the sea. Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 45: 595–608Google Scholar
  143. Wang W, Potts R, Baoyin Y, Huang W, Cheng H, Edwards R L, Ditchfield P. 2007a. Sequence of mammalian fossils, including hominoid teeth, from the Bubing Basin caves, South China. J Human Evol, 52: 370–379Google Scholar
  144. Wang X, Qiu Z, Li Q, Wang B, Qiu Z, Downs W R, Xie G, Xie J, Deng T, Takeuchi G T, Tseng Z J, Chang M, Liu J, Wang Y, Biasatti D, Sun Z, Fang X, Meng Q. 2007b. Vertebrate paleontology, biostratigraphy, geochronology, and paleoenvironment of Qaidam Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 254: 363–385Google Scholar
  145. Wang X M, Flynn L J, Fortelius M, eds. 2013a. Fossil Mammals of Asia: Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology. New York: Columbia University Press. 732Google Scholar
  146. Wang X, Li Q, Xie G, Saylor J E, Tseng Z J, Takeuchi G T, Deng T, Wang Y, Hou S, Liu J, Zhang C, Wang N, Wu F. 2013b. Mio-Pleistocene Zanda Basin biostratigraphy and geochronology, pre-Ice Age fauna, and mammalian evolution in western Himalaya. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol, 374: 81–95Google Scholar
  147. Wang X, Yang Z, Løvlie R, Min L. 2004. High-resolution magnetic stratigraphy of fluvio-lacustrine succession in the Nihewan Basin, China. Quat Sci Rev, 23: 1187–1198Google Scholar
  148. Wang X, Yang Z, Løvlie R, Sun Z, Pei J. 2006. A magnetostratigraphic reassessment of correlation between Chinese loess and marine oxygen isotope records over the last 1.1Ma. Phys Earth Planet Inter, 159: 109–117Google Scholar
  149. Wang X, Lu H, Zhang H, Wu J, Hou X, Fu Y, Geng J. 2018. Distribution, provenance, and onset of the Xiashu Loess in Southeast China with paleoclimatic implications. J Asian Earth Sci, 155: 180–187Google Scholar
  150. Wang Y, Jin C Z, Deng C L, Wei G B, Yan Y L. 2012. The first Sinomastodon (Gomphotheriidae, Proboscidea) skull from the Quaternary in China. Chin Sci Bull, 57: 4726–4734Google Scholar
  151. Wang Y, Jin C Z, Mead J I. 2014. New remains of Sinomastodon yangziensis (Proboscidea, Gomphotheriidae) from Sanhe karst Cave, with discussion on the evolution of Pleistocene Sinomastodon in South China. Quat Int, 339–340: 90–96Google Scholar
  152. Wang Y, Jin C, Pan W, Qin D, Yan Y, Zhang Y, Liu J, Dong W, Deng C. 2017. The Early Pleistocene Gigantopithecus-Sinomastodon fauna from Juyuan karst cave in Boyue Mountain, Guangxi, South China. Quat Int, 434: 4–16Google Scholar
  153. Wang Y J, Cheng H, Edwards R L, An Z S, Wu J Y, Shen C C, Dorale J A. 2001. A high-resolution absolute-dated Late Pleistocene monsoon record from Hulu Cave, China. Science, 294: 2345–2348Google Scholar
  154. Wang Y, Cheng H, Edwards R L, Kong X, Shao X, Chen S, Wu J, Jiang X, Wang X, An Z. 2008. Millennial- and orbital-scale changes in the East Asian monsoon over the past 224,000 years. Nature, 451: 1090–1093Google Scholar
  155. Wang Z F, Zhang D J, Liu X Y, You L, Luo W, Yi L, Tan L C, Zhu Y H, Qin H F, Cheng H, Li Z Q, Xie Q, Che Z W, Deng C L, Zhu R X. 2017. Magnetostratigraphy and 230Th dating of Pleistocene biogenic reefs in XK-1 borehole from Xisha Islands, South China Sea (in Chinese). Chin J Geophys, 60: 1027–1038Google Scholar
  156. Wu C L, Zhu C, Lu H Y, Ma C M, Zhu G Y, Zheng C G, Xun X W. 2006. Magnetostratigraphical dating of the Xiashu Loess in Nanjing area and its paleoenvironmental interpretation (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 30: 116–123Google Scholar
  157. Wu R K, Ren M E, Zhu X M, Yang Z G, Hu C K, Kong Z C, Xie Y Y. 1985. Multi-disciplinary Study of the Peking Man Site at Zhoukoudian (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 267Google Scholar
  158. Xu Q M, Yang J L, Hu Y Z, Yuan G B, Deng C L. 2018. Magnetostratigraphy of two deep boreholes in southwestern Bohai Bay: Tectonic implications and constraints on the ages of volcanic layers. Quat Geochronol, 43: 1–13Google Scholar
  159. Xu Q, Yuan G, Yang J, Xin H, Yi L, Deng C. 2017. Plio-Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy of northern Bohai Bay and its implications for tectonic events since ca. 2.0 Ma. J Geo Dyn, 111: 1–14Google Scholar
  160. Xue X X. 1981. An early Pleistocene mammalian fauna and its stratigraphy of the River You, Weinan, Shensi (in Chinese). Verteb PalAsia, 19: 35–44Google Scholar
  161. Yang S, Ding Z. 2010. Drastic climatic shift at ~2.8Ma as recorded in eolian deposits of China and its implications for redefining the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary. Quat Int, 219: 37–44Google Scholar
  162. Yao Y P, Liu Y. 2010. An international debate on the status of the Quaternary as a formal chronostratigraphical unit and the final ratification of the Quaternary System/Period (in Chinese). Adv Earth Sci, 25: 775–781Google Scholar
  163. Yi L, Deng C, Tian L, Xu X, Jiang X, Qiang X, Qin H, Ge J, Chen G, Su Q, Chen Y, Shi X, Xie Q, Yu H, Zhu R. 2016. Plio-Pleistocene evolution of Bohai Basin (East Asia): demise of Bohai Paleolake and transition to marine environment. Sci Rep, 6: 29403Google Scholar
  164. Yi L, Jiang X Y, Tian L Z, Yu H J, Xu X Y, Shi X F, Qin H F, Deng C L. 2016b. Geochronological study on Plio-Pleistocene evolution of Bohai Basin (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 36: 1075–1087Google Scholar
  165. Yin Q, Guo Z. 2006. Mid-pleistocene vermiculated red soils in southern China as an indication of unusually strengthened East Asian monsoon. Chin Sci Bull, 51: 213–220Google Scholar
  166. Young C C. 1950. The Plio-Pleistocene boundary in China. Report on 18th International Geological Congress, London. 115–125Google Scholar
  167. Yuan B Y, Zhu R X, Tian W L, Cui J X, Li R Q, Wang Q, Yan F H. 1996. Magnetostratigraphic dating on the Nihewan Formation (in Chinese). Sci China Ser D: Earth Sci, 26: 67–73Google Scholar
  168. Yuan B Y, Xia Z K, Li B S, Qiao Y S, Gu Z Y, Zhang J F, Xu B, Huang W W, Zeng R S. 2008. Chronostratigraphy and stratigraphic divisions of red soil in southern China (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 28: 1–13Google Scholar
  169. Yuan D, Cheng H, Edwards R L, Dykoski C A, Kelly M J, Zhang M, Qing J, Lin Y, Wang Y, Wu J, Dorale J A, An Z, Cai Y. 2004. Timing, duration, and transitions of the Last Interglacial Asian Monsoon. Science, 304: 575–578Google Scholar
  170. Yuan F L, Du H J. 1984. Cenozoic Stratigraphy in China (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 233–249Google Scholar
  171. Yuan G B, Xu Q M, Wang Y, Yang J L, Qin Y F, Du D. 2014. Magnetostratigraphy and tectonics significance of BG10 borehole in northern coast of Bohai Bay (in Chinese). Acta Geol Sin, 88: 285–298Google Scholar
  172. Yue L P, Wang Y, Zheng H B. 1994. Magnetostratigraphic date on the “Yangguo Fauna” (in Chinese). J Stratigr, 18: 203–206Google Scholar
  173. Yue L P, Xue X X. 1996. The comparative study of magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy in Chinese loess area (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 16: 239–244Google Scholar
  174. Zan J, Fang X, Zhang W, Yan M, Zhang T. 2016. Palaeoenvironmental and chronological constraints on the Early Pleistocene mammal fauna from loess deposits in the Linxia Basin, NE Tibetan Plateau. Quat Sci Rev, 148: 234–242Google Scholar
  175. Zeng L, Lu H, Yi S, Li Y, Lv A, Zhang W, Xu Z, Wu H, Feng H, Cui M. 2016. New magnetostratigraphic and pedostratigraphic investigations of loess deposits in north-east China and their implications for regional environmental change during the Mid-Pleistocene climatic transition. J Quat Sci, 31: 20–32Google Scholar
  176. Zeng L, Lu H Y, Yi S W Xu Z W, Qiu Z M, Yang Z Y, Li Y X. 2011. Magnetostratigraphy of loess in northeastern China and paleoclimatic changes (in Chinese). Chin Sci Bull, 56: 2267–2275Google Scholar
  177. Zhang J F, Huang W W, Hu Y, Yang S X, Zhou L P. 2015. Optical dating of flowstone and silty carbonate-rich sediments from Panxian Dadong Cave, Guizhou, southwestern China. Quat Geochron, 30: 479–486Google Scholar
  178. Zhang Y, Jin C, Cai Y, Kono R, Wang W, Wang Y, Zhu M, Yan Y. 2014. New 400–320 ka Gigantopithecus blacki remains from Hejiang Cave, Chongzuo City, Guangxi, South China. Quat Int, 354: 35–45Google Scholar
  179. Zhang Z H, Liu P G, Qian F, Min L R, Wang Q, Zong G F. 1994. New development in research of late Cenozoic stratigraphy in Yuanmou Basin (in Chinese). Mar Geol Quat Geol, 14: 1–18Google Scholar
  180. Zhang W, Yu L, Lu M, Zheng X, Ji J, Zhou L, Wang X. 2009. East Asian summer monsoon intensity inferred from iron oxide mineralogy in the Xiashu Loess in southern China. Quat Sci Rev, 28: 345–353Google Scholar
  181. Zhao H, Lu Y, Wang C, Chen J, Liu J, Mao H. 2010. ReOSL dating of aeolian and fluvial sediments from Nihewan Basin, northern China and its environmental application. Quat Geochron, 5: 159–163Google Scholar
  182. Zhao Q, Jian Z, Li B, Cheng X, Wang P. 1999. Microtektites in the Middle Pleistocene deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 42: 531–535Google Scholar
  183. Zhao S L, Yang G F, Cang S X, Zhang H C, Huang Q F, Xia D X, Wang Y J, Liu F S, Liu C F. 1978. On the marine stratigraphy and coastlines of the western coast of the gulf of Bohai (in Chinese). Oceanol Limn Sin, 9: 15–25Google Scholar
  184. Zhao Z Z, Qiao Y S, Wang Y, Fu J L, Wang S B, Li C Z, Yao H T, Jiang F C. 2007. Magnetostratigraphic and paleoclimatic studies on the Red Earth Formation from the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan Province, China. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 50: 927–935Google Scholar
  185. Zheng H B, Rolph T, Shaw J, An Z S. 1995. A detailed palaeomagnetic record for the last interglacial period. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 133: 339–351Google Scholar
  186. Zhou L P, Shackleton N J. 1999. Misleading positions of geomagnetic reversal boundaries in Eurasian loess and implications for correlation between continental and marine sedimentary sequences. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 168: 117–130Google Scholar
  187. Zhou M L, Min L R, Wang S F. 2000. China’s Quaternary Stratigraphy (in Chinese). Beijing: Geological Publishing House. 1–122Google Scholar
  188. Zhou M Q, Ge Z S. 1990. Magnetostratigraphic study of loose sediments in southern Yellow Sea and its adjacent land area (in Chinese). Mar Geol Quat Geol, 10: 21–33Google Scholar
  189. Zhou T R, Li H Z, Liu Q S, Li R Q, Sun X P. 1991. Cenozoic Paleogeography of the Nihewan Basin (in Chinese). Beijing: Science Press. 162Google Scholar
  190. Zhu R, An Z, Potts R, Hoffman K A. 2003. Magnetostratigraphic dating of early humans in China. Earth-Sci Rev, 61: 341–359Google Scholar
  191. Zhu R X, Deng C L, Pan Y X. 2007. Magnetochronology of the fluviolacustrine sequences in the Nihewan basin and its implications for early human colonization of northeast Asia (in Chinese). Quat Sci, 27: 922–944Google Scholar
  192. Zhu R X, Hoffman K A, Potts R, Deng C L, Pan Y X, Guo B, Shi C D, Guo Z T, Yuan B Y, Hou Y M, Huang W W. 2001. Earliest presence of humans in northeast Asia. Nature, 413: 413–417Google Scholar
  193. Zhu R, Liu Q, Pan Y, Deng C, Zhang R, Wang X. 2006. No apparent lockin depth of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion: Evidence from the Malan loess. Sci China Ser D-Earth Sci, 49: 960–967Google Scholar
  194. Zhu R, Pan Y, Liu Q. 1999. Geomagnetic excursions recorded in Chinese Loess in the last 70,000 years. Geophys Res Lett, 26: 505–508Google Scholar
  195. Zhu R X, Potts R, Pan Y X, Lü L Q, Yao H T, Deng C L, Qin H F. 2008a. Paleomagnetism of the Yuanmou Basin near the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and its constraints on late Neogene sedimentation and tectonic rotation. Earth Planet Sci Lett, 272: 97–104Google Scholar
  196. Zhu R X, Potts R, Pan Y X, Yao H T, Lü L Q, Zhao X, Gao X, Chen L W, Gao F, Deng C L. 2008b. Early evidence of the genus Homo in East Asia. J Human Evol, 55: 1075–1085Google Scholar
  197. Zhu R X, Potts R, Xie F, Hoffman K A, Deng C L, Shi C D, Pan Y X, Wang H Q, Shi R P, Wang Y C, Shi G H, Wu N Q. 2004. New evidence on the earliest human presence at high northern latitudes in northeast Asia. Nature, 431: 559–562Google Scholar
  198. Zhu R, Zhang R, Deng C, Pan Y, Liu Q, Sun Y. 2007. Are Chinese loess deposits essentially continuous? Geophys Res Lett, 34: L17306Google Scholar
  199. Zhu R X, Zhou L P, Laj C, Mazaud A, Ding Z L. 1994. The Blake geomagnetic polarity episode recorded in Chinese loess. Geophys Res Lett, 21: 697–700Google Scholar
  200. Zhu W L, Wang Z F, Mi L J, Du X B, Xie X N, Lu Y C, Zhang D J, Sun Z P, Liu X Y, You L. 2015a. Sequence stratigraphic framework and reef growth unit of Well Xike-1 from Xisha Islands, South China Sea (in Chinese). Earth Sci—J China Univ Geosci, 40: 677–687Google Scholar
  201. Zhu Z Y, Dennell R, Huang W W, Wu Y, Rao Z G, Qiu S F, Xie J B, Liu W, Fu S Q, Han J W, Zhou H Y, Ou Yang T P, Li H M. 2015b. New dating of the Homo erectus cranium from Lantian (Gongwangling), China. J Human Evol, 78: 144–157Google Scholar
  202. Zuo T W, Cheng H J, Liu P, Xie F, Deng C L. 2012. Magnetostratigraphic dating of the Hougou Paleolithic site in the Nihewan Basin, North China. Sci China Earth Sci, 54: 1643–1650Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chenglong Deng
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Qingzhen Hao
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Zhengtang Guo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Rixiang Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and GeophysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Institutions of Earth ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.College of Earth and Planetary SciencesUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of Cenozoic Geology and EnvironmentChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  5. 5.CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations