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Regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in health and disease

  • Ligong ChenEmail author
  • Xiao-Wei ChenEmail author
  • Xun HuangEmail author
  • Bao-Liang SongEmail author
  • Yan WangEmail author
  • Yiguo WangEmail author
Review

Abstract

Glucose and fatty acids are the major sources of energy for human body. Cholesterol, the most abundant sterol in mammals, is a key component of cell membranes although it does not generate ATP. The metabolisms of glucose, fatty acids and cholesterol are often intertwined and regulated. For example, glucose can be converted to fatty acids and cholesterol through de novo lipid biosynthesis pathways. Excessive lipids are secreted in lipoproteins or stored in lipid droplets. The metabolites of glucose and lipids are dynamically transported intercellularly and intracellularly, and then converted to other molecules in specific compartments. The disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism result in severe diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and fatty liver. This review summarizes the major metabolic aspects of glucose and lipid, and their regulations in the context of physiology and diseases.

cholesterol fatty acid glucose lysosome endoplasmic reticulum lipid droplet metabolic disease 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We appreciate the generous help of Jie Luo, Jian Xiao, Lu-Yi Jiang (Wuhan University), Long Ding (Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, CAS), Guoqiang Wang (Tsinghua University) and Yi Liu (Tsinghua University) during writing the review. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31521062, 31570807, 31571213, 31625014, 31621063, 31630019, 31830040, 91857000 and 91857108) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFA0500100, 2016YFC1304803, 2017YFA0503404 and 2018YFA0506900).

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© Science China Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural BiologyKey Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Tsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental BiologyChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Hubei Key Laboratory of Cell Homeostasis, College of Life SciencesWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  5. 5.MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life SciencesTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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