Efficient p-i-n structured perovskite solar cells employing low-cost and highly reproducible oligomers as hole transporting materials
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The development of p-i-n structured perovskite solar cells (PSCs) requires more extensive explorations on seeking efficient, low cost and stable hole transporting materials (HTMs). Small molecular HTMs are superior to polymeric ones in terms of synthetic reproducibility as well as purity. However, thin films composed of small molecules are usually labile during the solution-based perovskite deposition. Herein, we propose a molecular engineering strategy of incorporating oligothiophene as conjugation bridge to develop robust oligomer HTMs for p-i-n type PSCs. Upon increasing the oligothiophene chain length from α-bithiophene to α-quaterthiophene and α-hexathiophene, their HOMO energy levels remain unchanged, but their solubility in common organic solvents decreased remarkably, thus greatly enhancing their tolerance to the perovskite deposition. The rational design of oligothiophene chain length can effectively tune their optoelectronic properties as well as thin film stability under polar solvent soaking. The best performance is achieved by an α-quaterthiophene based HTM (QT), showing a high efficiency of 17.69% with fill factor of 0.81, which are comparable to those of a commercially available benchmark polymer HTM (poly[bis (4-phenyl)(2,4-dimethylphenyl) amine], PTAA) based devices fabricated under the same conditions. Our developed oligomer system not only provides the definite molecular structures like small molecule-type HTMs, but also exhibits the excellent film-forming like polymer-type HTMs, thus achieving the well-balanced parameters among solvent tolerance, thin film conductivity, and interfacial charge transfer efficiency, especially building up a platform to develop low cost and reproducible efficient HTMs in p-i-n structured perovskite solar cells.
Keywordsperovskite solar cells p-i-n device structure hole transporting materials oligomers reproducibility
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This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21822504, 21706070, 21421004, 21636002), Shanghai Science and Technology Committee (17ZR1407400, 17520750100), China Association of Science and Technology (2017QNRC001), Eastern Scholar (TP2016018), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (WJ1714007).
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