Shikonofuran E plays an anti-inflammatory role by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages
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The anti-inflammatory effects of shikonofuran E from Onosma paniculatum on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were first time examined. A series of non-cytotoxic concentrations of shikonofuran E (< 10 μM) treatments were found to reduce the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and inhibit the expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxidase-2 (COX-2) in the LPS-stimulated macrophages as compared to the LPS-only treated cells. Nitric oxide (NO) production was also significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) with an IC50, the phosphorylation level of JNK of 3.5 µg/mL. In the anti-inflammatory pathway studies, ERK, p38 and IκBα were also decreased by shikonofuran E at 10 μM, in spite of the total levels of the MAPK isoforms and IκBα did not differ significantly. Our results indicate that shikonofuran E could exert an anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and regulating a series of cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
KeywordsShikonofuran E Onosma paniculatum Anti-inflammatory Inflammatory mediators Inflammatory signaling pathway
This research work was financially supported by the grant from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21572082), the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China (No. P2015-KF01), the College Students Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Program in Yunnan Province (No. 201610674082).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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