Response to Criticism: Police Legitimacy, Beyond the Entrenched Niches of Expertise

  • Liqun CaoEmail author


The purpose of this article is to first re-state the key points of the rejoinder by Cao and Graham. It then proceeds to defend and clarify the arguments that we have made in our article by raising a few misinterpretations by the two reviewers. I end this article with an advice from John Braithwaite 30 years ago that we should nurture the new endeavors in criminology instead of being united against such undertakings.


Measurement Police legitimacy Procedural justice Theory testing 


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Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Social Science and HumanitiesOntario Tech UniversityOshawaCanada

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