Parental Problem Recognition and Help-Seeking for Disruptive Behavior Disorders

  • Oliver G. JohnstonEmail author
  • Jeffrey D. Burke


Millions of children across the USA have unmet mental health needs. When these include the disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs)—oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)—this can mean significant long-term consequences. Since children rarely seek treatment themselves, parents are central to the help-seeking process. This paper reviews research on the rates of problem recognition and help-seeking for DBDs, and on perceptual barriers that might hinder service engagement. Most children with DBDs are neither identified as such nor engaged in treatment, although this may be less true for ADHD than ODD or CD. Factors associated with DBDs that may reduce service engagement include seeing the behaviors as “normative,” interpreting the symptoms as willful, and expecting to be blamed for the child’s problems. Implications of these findings are discussed with particular focus on the widespread dissemination of evidence-based information about DBDs.



The authors wish to thank Stephanie Milan, Ph.D., and Crystal L. Park, Ph.D., for their review and feedback during the production of this manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Kataoka S, Zhanc L, Wells K. Unmet Need for Mental Health Care among U.S. Children: Variation by Ethnicity and Insurance Status. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2002;159:1548–1555.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2000.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burke JD, Loeber R, Lahey BB, et al. Developmental Transitions among Affective and Behavioral Disorders in Adolescent Boys. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2005;46(11):1200–1210.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bussing R, Gary FA, Mason DM, et al. Child Temperament, ADHD, and Caregiver Strain: Exploring Relationships in an Epidemiological Sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2003a;42(2):184–192.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wymbs BT, Pelham WE, Molina BSG, et al. Rate and Predictors of Divorce among Parents of Youths with ADHD. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology. 2008;76(5):735–744.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eyberg SM, Nelson MM, Boggs SR. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children and Adolescents with Disruptive Behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2008;37(1):215–237.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Harrington H, et al. Males on the Life-Course Persistent and Adolescent-Limited Antisocial Pathways: Follow-up at Age 26 Years. Development and Psychopathology. 2002;14:170–207.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cohen MA, Piquero AR. New Evidence on the Monetary Value of Saving a High Risk Youth. Journal of Quantitative Criminology. 2009;25:25–49.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaminski JW, Claussen AH. Evidence Base Update for Psychosocial Treatments for Disruptive Behaviors in Children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. 2017;46(4):477–499.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilson HA. Can Antisocial Personality Disorder be Treated? A Meta-Analysis Examining the Effectiveness of Treatment in Reducing Recidivism for Individuals Diagnosed with ASPD. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. 2014;13(1):36–46.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Burke JD, Pardini DA, Loeber R. Reciprocal Relationships between Parenting Behavior and Disruptive Psychopathology from Childhood through Adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2008;36(5):679–692.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Johnston C, Chen M, Ohan JL. Mothers’ Attributions for Behavior in Nonproblem Boys, Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2006;35(1):60–71.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Girio-Herrera E, Owens JS, Langberg JM. Perceived Barriers to Help-Seeking among Parents of At-Risk Kindergarteners in Rural Communities. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2013;42(1):68–77.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reynolds C, Kamphaus R. Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service, 2004.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Oh E, Bayer JK. Parents’ Help-Seeking Processes for Early Childhood Mental Health Problems. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2015;20(3):149–154.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA. Manual for the ASEBA School Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families, 2001.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Teagle SE. Parental Problem Recognition and Cehild Mental Health Service Use. Mental Health Services Research. 2002;4(4):257–266.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Angold A, Costello EJ. A Test-Retest Reliability Study of Child-Reported Psychiatric Symptoms and Diagnoses Using the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA-C). Psychological Medicine. 1995;25:755–762.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zwaanswijk M, Verhaak PFM, van der Ende J, et al. Change in Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems over a One-Year Period. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;15:127–131.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Achenbach TM. Manual for the Child Behavior checklist/4–18 and 1991 Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 1991a.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Achenbach TM. Manual for the Teacher’s Report Form and 1991 Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry, 1991b.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bussing R, Zima BT, Gary FA, et al. Barriers to Detection, Help-Seeking, and Service Use for Children with ADHD Symptoms. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 2003b;30(2):176-189.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Swanson JM. School-Based Assessments and Interventions for ADD Students. Irvine, CA: K.C. Publishing, 1992.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pavuluri MN, Luk S-L, McGee R. Help-Seeking for Behavior Problems by Parents of Preschool Children: A Community Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1996;35(2):215–222.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Richman N, Graham PJ. A Behavioural Screening Questionnaire for Use in Three-Year-Old Children: Preliminary Findings. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 1971;12:5–33.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Graham PJ, Rutter M. The Reliability and Validity of the Psychiatric Assessment of the Child, 1: Interview with the Child. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1963;114:563–570.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Loades ME, Mastroyannopoulou K. Teachers’ Recognition of Children’s Mental Health Problems. Child & Adolescent Mental Health. 2010;15(3):150–156.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yeh M, McCabe K, Hough RL, et al. Why Bother with Beliefs? Examining Relationships between Race/Ethnicity, Parental Beliefs about Causes of Child Problems, and Mental Health Service Use. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2005;73(5):800–807.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Maniadaki K, Sonuga-Barke E, Kakouros E, et al. AD/HD Symptoms and Conduct Problems: Similarities and Differences in Maternal Perceptions. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2006;15(4):463–477.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Farina A, Fisher JD, Getter H, et al. Some Consequences of Changing People’s Views Regarding the Nature of Mental Illness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. 1978;87:272–279.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Saltmarsh R, McDougall S, Downey J. Attributions of Child Behaviour: Comparing Attributions Made by Parents of Children Diagnosed with ADHD and those Made by Parents of Children with Behavioural Difficulties. Educational & Child Psychology. 2005;22(4):108–126.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Snarr JD, Smith Slep AM, Grande VP. Validation of a New Self-Report Measure of Parental Attributions. Psychological Assessment. 2009;21(3):390–401.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kimonis ER, Frick PJ, McMahon RJ. Conduct and oppositional defiant disorders. In: EJ Mash, RA Barkley (Eds). Child Psychopathology, Third Edition. New York: Guilford Press, 2014, pp. 145–179.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dodge KA, Pettit GS. A Biopsychosocial Model of the Development of Chronic Conduct Problems in Adolescence. Development and Psychopathology. 2003;39(2):349–371.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nigg JT. What Causes ADHD?: Understanding What Goes Wrong and Why. New York, NY: Guilford Press, 2006.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Bussing R, Schoenberg NE, Perwien AR. Knowledge and Information about ADHD: Evidence of Cultural Differences among African-American and White Parents. Social Science & Medicine. 1998;46(7):919–928.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bussing R, Zima BT, Mason DM et al. ADHD Knowledge, Perceptions, and Information sources: Perspectives from a Community Sample of Adolescents and their Parents. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2012; 51(6):593–600.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Yeh M, Hough RL, McCabe K, et al. Parental Beliefs about the Causes of Child Problems: Exploring Racial/Ethnic Patterns. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2004;43(5):605–612.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Finkelhor D, Wolak J, Berliner L. Police Reporting and Professional Help Seeking for Child Crime Victims: A Review. Child Maltreatment. 2001;6(1):17–30.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Owens PL, Hoagwood K, Horwitz SM, et al. Barriers to Children’s Mental Health Services. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2002;41(6):731–738.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Arcia E, Fernández MC. From Awareness to Acknowledgment: The Development of Concern among Latina Mothers of Children with Disruptive Behaviors. Journal of Attentional Disorders. 2003;6(4):163–175.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Baden AD, Howe GW. Mothers’ Attributions and Expectancies Regarding their Conduct-Disordered Children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1992;20(5):467–485.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zwaanswijk M, Verhaak PFM, Bensing JM, et al. Help Seeking for Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children and Adolescents A Review of Recent Literature. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2003;12:153–161.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rooke O, Thompson M, Day C. School-Based Open Access Parenting Programmes: Factors Relating to Uptake. Child and Adolescent Mental Health. 2004;9(3):130–138.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Stringaris A. Irritability in Children and Adolescents: A Challenge for DSM-5. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2011;20(2):61–66.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Wakschlag LS, Choi SW, Carter AS, et al. Defining the Developmental Parameters of Temper Loss in Early Childhood: Implications for Developmental Psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2012;53(11):1099–1108.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Keenan K, Wakschlag LS. Are Oppositional Defiant and Conduct Disorder Symptoms Normative Behaviors in Preschoolers? A Comparison of Referred and Nonreferred Children. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2004;161(2):356–358.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wakschlag LS, Briggs-Gowan MJ, Carter AS, et al. A Developmental Framework for Distinguishing Disruptive Behavior from Normative Misbehavior in Preschool Children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2007;48:976–987.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thompson R, May MA. Caregivers’ Perceptions of Child Mental Health Needs and Service Utilization: An Urban 8-Year Old Sample. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research. 2006;33(4):474–483.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shivram R, Bankart J, Meltzer H, et al. Service Utilization by Children with Conduct Disorders: Findings from the 2004 Great Britain Child Mental Health Survey. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2009;18:555–563.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goodman R, Ford T, Richards H, et al. The Development and Well-Being Assessment: Description and Initial Validation of an Integrated Assessment of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2000;41:645–655.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Trepat de Ancos E, Ezpeleta L. Sex Differences in Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Psicothema. 2011;23:666–671.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zimmerman FJ. Social and Economic Determinants of Disparities in Professional Help-Seeking for Child Mental Health Problems: Evidence from a National Sample. Health Services Research. 2005;40:1514–1533.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Canino G, Polanczyk G, Bauermeister JJ, et al. Does the Prevalence of CD and ODD Vary across Cultures? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2010;45(7):695–704.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Demmer DH, Hooley M, Sheen J, et al. Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Oppositional Defiant Disorder during Middle Childhood: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2017;45:313–325.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Polanczyk G, de Lima MS, Horta BL, et al. The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis. American Journal of Psychiatry. 2007;164(4):942–948.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Alegría M, Lin JY, Green JG, et al. Role of Referrals in Mental Health Service Minority Youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2012;51(7):703–711.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Thurston IB, Phares V, Coates EE, et al. Child Problem Recognition and Help-Seeking Intentions among Black and White Parents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2015;44(4):604–615.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Garland AF, Besinger BA. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Court Referred Pathways to Mental Health Services for Children in Foster Care. Child and Youth Services Review. 1997;19(8):651–666.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sheppard VB, Benjamin-Coleman R. Determinants of Service Placements for Youth with Serious Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances. Community Mental Health Journal. 2001;37(1):53–65.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ho J, Yeh M, McCabe K, et al. Parental Cultural Affiliation and Youth Mental Health Service Use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2007;36:529–542.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hinshaw SP. The Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Children and Parents: Developmental Issues, Family Concerns, and Research Needs. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2005;46(7):714–734.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ohan JL, Seward RJ, Stallman HM, et al. Parents’ Barriers to Using School Psychology Services for their Child’s Mental Health Problems. School Mental Health. 2015;7:287–297.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Blaine B. The Psychology of Diversity: Perceiving and Experiencing Social Difference. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 2000.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Harvey EA, Metcalfe LA, Herbert SD, et al. The Role of Family Experiences and ADHD in the Early Development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2011;79(6):784–795.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Patterson GR. A Social Learning Approach to Family Intervention: Volume 3. Coercive Family Process. Eugene, OR: Castalia Publishing Company, 1982.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lewis RM, Petch V, Wilson N, et al. Understanding Conduct Disorder: The Ways in which Mothers Attempt to Make Sense of their Children’s Behaviour. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2015;20(4):570–584.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dempster R, Wildman B, Keating A. The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-Seeking for Child Behavior Problems. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 2013;42(1):56–67.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Heflinger CA, Wallston KA, Mukolo A, et al. Perceived Stigma toward Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems and their Families: The Attitudes about Child Mental Health Questionnaire (ACMHQ). Stigma and Health. 2015;1:75–85.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pescosolido BA, Fettes DL, Martin JK, et al. Perceived Dangerousness of Children with Mental Health Problems and Support for Coerced Treatment. Psychiatric Services. 2009;58:619–625.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lau A, Takeuchi D. Cultural Factors in Help-Seeking for Child Behavior Problems: Value Orientation, Affective Responding, and Severity Appraisals among Chinese-American Parents. Journal of Community Psychology. 2001;29(6):675–692.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dempster R, Davis DW, Jones VF, et al. The Role of Stigma in Parental Help-Seeking for Perceived Child Behavior Problems in Urban, Low-Income African American Parents. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. 2015;22:265–278.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thompson VLS, Bazile A, Akbar, M. African Americans’ Perceptions of Psychotherapy and Psychotherapists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2004;35(1):19–26.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Godoy L, Mian ND, Eisenhower AS, et al. Pathways to Service Receipt: Modeling Parent Help-Seeking for Childhood Mental Health Problems. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2014;41:469–479.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Oh E, Bayer JK. Predicting Parents’ Intentions to Seek Help for Young Children’s Mental Health. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion. 2017;19(1):38–49.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Zwaanswijk M, van der Ende J, Verhaak PFM, et al. Help-Seeking for Child Psychopathology: Pathways to Informal and Professional Services in the Netherlands. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. 2005;44(12):1292–1300.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Reid GJ, Cunningham CE, Tobon JI, et al. Help-Seeking for Children with Mental Health Problems: Parents’ Efforts and Experiences. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 2011;38:384–397.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schraeder KE, Reid GJ. Why Wait? The Effect of Wait-Times on Subsequent Help-Seeking among Families Looking for Children’s Mental Health Services. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2015;43:553–565.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Burke JD, Mulvey EP, Schubert CA. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems and Service Use among First-Time Juvenile Offenders. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2015;24(12):3774–3781.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cornelius JR, Pringle J, Jernigan J, et al. Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization and Unmet Need among a Sample of Male Adolescents. Addictive Behaviors. 2001;26:11–19.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kelland K. New Mental Health Manual is “Dangerous” Say Experts. Reuters. Available online at Accessed on October 9, 2018.
  83. 83.
    Lee SS, Lahey BB, Waldman I, et al. Association of Dopamine Transporter Genotype with Disruptive Behavior Disorders in an Eight-Year Longitudinal Study of Children and Adolescents. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics). 2007;144:310–317.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Matthys W, Vanderschuren LJ, Schutter, DJ. The Neurobiology of Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder: Altered Functioning in Three Mental Domains. Development and Psychopathology. 2013;25(1):193–207.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Dick DM, Viken RJ, Kaprio J, et al. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2005;33(2):219–229.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Augimeri LK, Farrington DP, Koegl CJ, et al. The SNAP™ under 12 Outreach Project: Effects of a Community Based Program for Children with Conduct Problems. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2007;16(6):799–807.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    McMiller WP, Weisz JR. Help-Seeking Preceding Mental Health Clinic Intake among African-American, Latino, and Caucasian Youths. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 1996;35(8):1086–1094.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Williams MT, Tellawi G, Wetterneck CT. Recruitment of Ethnoracial Minorities for Mental Health Research. The Behavior Therapist. 2013;36(6):151–156.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Girio-Herrera E, Owens JS. A Pilot Study Examining a School-Based Parent Engagement Intervention following School Mental Health Screening. School Mental Health. 2017;9:117–131.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wilson SJ, Lipsey MW. School-Based Interventions for Aggressive and Disruptive Behavior: Update of a Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2007;33:130–143.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lowinger RJ. Chinese American Parental Attitudes toward Seeking Help for Children’s Emotional/Behavioral Problems in School. North American Journal of Psychology. 2009;11(3):523–5422.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kolko DJ, Campo J V., Kelleher K, et al. Improving Access to Care and Clinical Outcome for Pediatric Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Trial of Nurse-Administered Intervention in Primary Care. Journal of Development & Behavioral Pediatrics. 2010;31(5):393–404.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Olds D, Henderson CR, Cole R, et al. Long-Term Effects of Nurse Home Visitation on Children’s Criminal and Antisocial Behavior: 15-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1998;280(14):1238–1244.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Foulks EF, Persons JB, Merkel RL. The Effect of Patients’ Beliefs about their Illnesses on Compliance in Psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1986;143:340–344.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, Illness, and Care. Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1978;88(2):251–258.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mental Health Information. Health Topics. National Institute of Mental Health. Available ‘,’at Accessed on October 19, 2018.
  97. 97.
    Ho J, Yeh M, McCabe K, et al. Perceptions of the Acceptability of Parent Training among Chinese Immigrant Parents: Contributions of Cultural Factors and Clinical Need. Behavior Therapy. 2012;43:436–449.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Herschell AD, Kolko DJ, Scudder AT, et al. Protocol for a Statewide Randomized Controlled Trial to Compare Three Training Models for Implementing an Evidence-Based Treatment. Implementation Science. 2015;10(133):1–16.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kolko DJ, Baumann BL, Herschell AD, et al. Implementation of AF-CBT by Community Practitioners Serving Child Welfare and Mental Health: A Randomized Trial. Child Maltreatment. 2012;17(1):32–46.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Jones D, Dodge KA, Foster EM, et al. Early Identification of Children at Risk for Costly Mental Health Service Use. Prevention Science. 2002;3(4):247–256.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kohlboeck G, Romanos M, Teuner CM, et al. Healthcare Use and Costs Associated with Children’s Behavior Problems. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2014;23:701–714.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© National Council for Behavioral Health 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychological SciencesUniversity of ConnecticutStorrsUSA

Personalised recommendations