Metacognition and Learning

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 179–212 | Cite as

Beyond intelligence: a meta-analytic review of the relationship among metacognition, intelligence, and academic performance

  • Kazuhiro OhtaniEmail author
  • Tetsuya Hisasaka


This meta-analytic study estimated the correlations among metacognition, intelligence, and academic performance. Metacognition is higher order cognition and one of the most significant predictors of academic performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which metacognition predicted academic performance when controlling for intelligence. The analysis of 149 samples from 118 articles revealed that, overall, metacognition weakly correlated with both academic performance and intelligence, and that these relationships were moderated by the type of measurement of metacognition. Furthermore, it was found that metacognition predicted academic performance when controlling for intelligence. Our findings indicate the importance of metacognition in educational practice and provide guidance for assessing metacognition in future research.


Metacognition Academic performance Intelligence Meta-analysis 



Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas, Grant 16H06406.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed consent

Informed consent was not required, as the study was a meta-analysis and collected and synthesized data from previous studies in which informed consent was provided.


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Further Reading

    The studies marked with an asterisk represent the studies included in the meta-analysis.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationIwate UniversityMoriokaJapan

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