Metacognition and Learning

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 109–126 | Cite as

Study techniques differentially influence the delayed judgment-of-learning accuracy of adolescent children and college-aged adults

  • Gregory I. HughesEmail author
  • Holly A. Taylor
  • Ayanna K. Thomas


The ways in which adult learners study information influences their judgment-of-learning (JOL) accuracy (e.g., Koriat et al. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131(2), 147-162, 2002). The present study extends this investigation to adolescent children to determine whether developing learners’ metacognitive monitoring is similarly influenced by different study techniques. In two experiments, we examined JOL accuracy in adolescent children (ages 11 to 12) and college-aged adults. Across both experiments, we employed a standard delayed-JOL paradigm in which three groups of participants, differing in type of study technique, encoded weakly-related word pairs. One group studied the word pairs twice (study practice). A second group studied with the instruction to generate a word that linked the two members of the word pair together (elaborative encoding). The final group studied word pairs and then took an immediate cued-recall test with feedback (retrieval practice). In children and adults, retrieval practice led to better JOL accuracy as compared to study practice. Children differed from adults in how elaborative encoding influenced JOL accuracy. For adults, elaborative encoding resulted in better JOL accuracy than study practice; however, for children, JOL accuracy did not differ between the two groups. Our results suggest that encoding processes influence delayed-JOL accuracy in both age-groups.


Metamemory Children Judgments of learning Monitoring Retrieval practice 



The authors would like to thank John Kitzmiller, a mathematics educator at the Frances C. Richmond Middle School at Hanover, NH.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregory I. Hughes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Holly A. Taylor
    • 1
  • Ayanna K. Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTufts UniversityMedfordUSA

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