Advertisement

International Journal of Hindu Studies

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 451–474 | Cite as

The Other Trinity: Saurashtra Histories of Carnatic Music

  • Archana Venkatesan
Article
  • 7 Downloads

Abstract

The paper examines the place of Veṅkaṭaramaṇa Bhāgavatar (1781–1874), Kavi Veṅkaṭasūri (1818–90), and Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ (1843–1914)—three nineteenth-century figures—in the Saurashtra reimagining of the history of the South Indian music tradition. Worshiped as the mummūrti, these three poet/saint/musicians are regarded by the Saurashtra community of Madurai as the alternative to the deified figures of Tyāgarāja (1767–1847), Muttusvāmi Dīkṣitar (1775–1835), and Śyāma Śāstri (1762–1827), canonical to the South Indian classical music tradition as it develops in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Engaging with recent scholarship on the cultural histories of South Indian music, the paper moves between the center and the periphery, between the cities of Madras and Madurai, to chart the (continuing) work of the Saurashtra community in rewriting the script for South Indian music.

Keywords

Saurashtra Madurai South Indian music mummūrti music trinity Veṅkaṭsūri Veṅkaṭaramaṇa Bhāgavatar Naṭanagopāla Nāyaki Svāmikaḷ 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiyar, Venkatarama T. L. 1970. “Foreword.” In Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ, Divine Kritis of Sriman Natanagopala Nayaki Swamigal: A Great Bridal Mystic (trans. A. Srinivasaraghavan), 5–6. Madurai: Siddhasramam.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous. 2014. “The Caste Questions in the Sourashtra Community.” Sonna Kodum 1, 12 (May): 1–4.Google Scholar
  3. Bharati, Suddhananda. 1950. St. Natana Gopal. Madras: Yoga Samaj.Google Scholar
  4. Bharati, Suddhananda. 1989 [1975]. “Siddhasramam To-day.” In S. G. Vamanamoorthy, ed., Siddhāsramam: Its Ideals and Activities, 16–17. Madurai: Siddhāsramam.Google Scholar
  5. Branfoot, Crispin. 2000. “Royal Portrait Sculpture in the South Indian Temple.” South Asian Studies 16, 1: 11–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Branfoot, Crispin. 2013. “Remaking the Past: Tamil Sacred Landscape and Temple Renovations.” Bulletin of School of Oriental and African Studies 76, 1: 21–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dave, I. R. 1976. The Saurashtrians in South India: Their Language, Literature and Culture. Rajkot: Saurashtra University.Google Scholar
  8. Iyer, K. V. Padmanabha. 1938. Śriman Naṭaṉagōpāla Nāyaki Svāmi Carittiram. Madurai: Rājeśvari Press.Google Scholar
  9. Iyer, Krishna L. and Vijayalakshmi. 1957. Maturaiyiṉ Jyoti: The Immortal Saint of South India. Madurai: C.M.V.Publishers.Google Scholar
  10. Jackson, William J. 1994. Tyāgarāja and the Renewal of Tradition: Translations and Reflections. New Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass.Google Scholar
  11. Jackson, William J. 1998. “Boat Ride Reverie: An Introduction to Tyagaraja’s Naukā Caritram.” Journal of South Asian Literature 23, 1: 1–3.Google Scholar
  12. JMA Report 1947. “The XX Madras-Music—Tyagaraja Centenary Conference 1947: Official Report.” The Journal of the Music Academy, Madras 18 (1947): 1–35.Google Scholar
  13. JMA Report 1971. “The XLIVth Madras Music Conference, 1970: Official Report.” The Journal of the Music Academy, Madras 41 (1971): 1–72.Google Scholar
  14. Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ. 1970. Divine Kritis of Sriman Natanagopala Nayaki Swamigal: A Great Bridal Mystic (trans. A. Srinivasaraghavan). Madurai: Siddhasramam.Google Scholar
  15. Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ. 2007. Śrīman Naṭaṉagopāla Nāyakī Svāmikaḷiṉ Bhajanai–p-Pāṭalkaḷ Tokuppu. Chennai: Śrīman Naṭaṉagopāla Nāyakī Svāmikaḷiṉ Satasangam.Google Scholar
  16. Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ. 2008. Śrī Nāyakī Svāmikaḷiṉ Tamiḻ Kīrttaṉaikaḷ (eds. K. S. Krishnamurthi and Tangamani Krishnamurthi). Madurai: Śrī Ubhaya Vedānta Prakaṭaṇa Sabha.Google Scholar
  17. Peterson, Indira Viswanathan. 1984. “The Kṛti as an Integrative Cultural Form: Esthetic Experience in the Religious Songs of Two South Indian Classical Composers.” Journal of South Asian Literature 19, 2 (Special Issue: “The Lyric in India”): 165–79.Google Scholar
  18. Raghavan, V. 1970. “Preface.” In Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ, Divine Kritis of Sriman Natanagopala Nayaki Swamigal: A Great Bridal Mystic (trans. A. Srinivasaraghavan), 7–10. Madurai: Siddhasramam.Google Scholar
  19. Ramaswamy, Vijaya. 2014. “Mapping Migrations of South Indian Weavers Before, During and After the Vijayanagar Period: Thirteenth to Eighteenth Centuries.” In Jan Lucassen and Ian Lucassen eds., Globalising Migration History: The Eurasian Experience (16th–21st Centuries), 89–121. Leiden: Brill.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sambamoorthy, P. 1947. “The Walajapet Manuscripts.” The Journal of the Music Academy 18: 114–29.Google Scholar
  21. Sambamoorthy, P. 1985 [1959]. Great Musicians: Giving Biographical Sketches and Critical Estimates of Fifteen Musical Luminaries of the Post-Tyagaraja Period. Madras: Indian Music Publishing House.Google Scholar
  22. Saurashtra Sabha. 1941. The Caste Questions in the Sourashtra Community. Madurai: Saurashtra Sabha.Google Scholar
  23. Sethuraman, R. 1977. Namaṉai Veṉṟa Nāyakī: Maduraiyiṉ Āṇṭāḷ Śrī Naṭaṉagopāla Nāyakī Caritram. Madurai: Saurashtra Cultural Academy.Google Scholar
  24. Soneji, Davesh. 2011. “Tukaram in the Tamil Country: Marathi Kirtan and the Cosmopolitan Life of Carnatic Music.” Paper Delivered at the 40th Annual Conference on South Asia, Center for South Asia, Univesity of Wisconsin-Madison, October 14–17.Google Scholar
  25. Subbarāma Dīkṣitar. 1906. Sangīta Sampradāya Pradarśini. Ettayapuram: Vidya Vilasini Press.Google Scholar
  26. Subramanian, D. K. 2001. Śrīman Naṭaṉagopāla Nāyakī Svāmikaḷiṉ Vāḻvum Vākkum. Madurai: Śrī Nāyaki Communications.Google Scholar
  27. Subramanian, Lakshmi. 2006. From the Tanjore Court to the Madras Music Academy: A Social History of Music in South India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Subramanian, Lakshmi. 2008. New Mansions for Music: Performance, Pedagogy and Criticism. New Delhi: Social Science Press.Google Scholar
  29. Vamanamoorthy, S. G., comp. 1989 [1975]. Siddhāsramam: Its Ideals and Activities. Madurai: Siddhāsramam.Google Scholar
  30. Venkatesan, Archana. 2014. “Making Saints, Making Communities: Nāyakī Svāmikaḷ and the Saurashtras of Madurai.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 37, 4: 568–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vijayalakshmi, Sivananda. 1970. Kaṇṇaṉaik Kalanta Kātalar. Madurai: Siddhāsramam.Google Scholar
  32. Weidman, Amanda J. 2006. Singing the Classical, Voicing the Modern: The Postcolonial Politics of Music in South India. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Religious StudiesUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations