Distribution and availability of fungicide-derived copper in soil aggregates
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Soil consists of various sizes of aggregates, and different soil aggregates vary in their abilities to adsorb or transport metals. This study aimed to investigate the distribution behaviors of Cu from different fungicides in soil aggregates after a 15-month incubation.
Materials and methods
Bordeaux mixture (CuSO4/Ca(OH)2 = 1/1 by weight, BR), copper nitrate (Cu(NO3)2·4H2O, CN), and copper oxychloride (3Cu(OH)2·CuCl2, CO) were applied to a representative Chinese Mollisol to reach the Cu content 200 mg kg−1. Five soil aggregate fractions, i.e., > 2000 μm, 2000–1000 μm, 1000–500 μm, 500–250 μm, and < 250 μm, were obtained by the wet sieving method. The modified Bureau Communautaire de Références (BCR) sequential extraction was applied to assess the Cu distribution among the main soil fractions.
Results and discussion
The highest Cu mass loading was found for the > 2000-μm soil aggregate. The input Cu was mainly in stable fractions, and the highest proportion was found for the residual fraction. The bioavailability and mobility of Cu from different fungicides in soils varied from each other, and they presented an order of CO > CN > BR. High bioavailability and transferring coefficients were found in the < 250-μm and > 2000-μm soil aggregates.
This study indicated that the input Cu from fungicides mainly distributed in the > 2000-μm soil aggregates. Moreover, the CO-derived Cu presented a higher availability than the BR- and CN-derived Cu in the soil.
KeywordsBioavailability Chemical form Copper-based fungicides Soil aggregates
This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41771356), the Project of Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province (No. 20180101315JC), the Outstanding Young Talents Foundation of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. DLSYQ14003), and the 135 Breading Project of Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (no. Y6H2081001).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
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