Response of water-soluble salt accumulation in weathered gneiss spoil substrate to the addition of superabsorbent polymer under a semiarid climate
- 16 Downloads
Superabsorbent polymer (SAP) has been widely used to improve soil moisture conditions in the ecological restoration of mining land. The effect of SAP on water-soluble salt movement in SAP-modified gneiss spoil in a semiarid region was studied in this experiment.
Materials and methods
Weathered gneiss spoil, dress soil, SAP, and turf were mixed via the L25(56) orthogonal test, and the semiarid environmental conditions were controlled for 1 year in a climate chamber.
Results and discussion
The results showed that bulk density, field water-holding capacity, and daily average evaporation rate of the substrate were dominated by the proportions of the soil and turf contents but were not significantly influenced by the SAP. The water-soluble salt in the top layer of the substrate increased significantly as the SAP concentration increased; i.e., it increased by 36.5% per 0.1% increase in the SAP within the range of 0 to 1%. The major ions influenced by the SAP were Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl−, and SO42−. The SAP decreased the pH of the substrate before the experiment, but only the top layer was influenced by the increase in the SAP after 1 year. The electrical conductivity (EC), which reflects the content of soluble ions in different substrate layers, was significantly influenced by the SAP in the following order: EC-middle layer < EC-bottom layer < EC-top layer.
Based on the above results, we can conclude that the strong water and salt ion absorption ability of the SAP may limit the leaching of water-soluble ions and aggravate the accumulation of surface salts under semiarid environmental conditions. This study will be helpful for understanding the salt accumulation caused by the use of SAP in the remediation of mine spoil with high soluble salt contents.
KeywordsEcological restoration substrate Simulation experiment Spoil utilization Superabsorbent polymer Water-soluble salt
- Agaba H, Orikiriza LJB , Obua J, Kabasa JD ,Worbes M, Hüttermann A (2011) Hydrogel amendment to sandy soil reduces irrigation frequency and improves the biomass of Agrostis stolonifera. Agr Sci 02:544-550Google Scholar
- Bai WB, Song JQ, Zhang HZ (2013) Repeated water absorbency of super-absorbent polymers in agricultural field applications: a simulation study. Acta Agric Scand 63:433–441Google Scholar
- Bao SD (2015) Soil and agriculture chemistry analysis. China Agriculture Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Chehab H, Tekaya M, Mechri B, Jemai A, Guiaa M, Mahjoub Z, Boujnah D, Laamari S, Chihaoui B, Zakhama H, Hammami M, del Giudice T (2017) Effect of the super absorbent polymer Stockosorb® on leaf turgor pressure, tree performance and oil quality of olive trees cv. Chemlali grown under field conditions in an arid region of Tunisia. Agric Water Manag 192:221–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dorraji SS, Golchin A, Ahmadi S (2015) The effects of hydrophilic polymer and soil salinity on corn growth in sandy and loamy soils. Clean Soil Air Water 38:584–591Google Scholar
- Hong HS, Ham SY, Kim JS, Kim IS, Lee EY (2016) Application of sodium polyacrylate and plant growth–promoting bacterium, Micrococcaceae HW–2, on the growth of plants cultivated in the rooftop. Int Biodeter Biodegr 113:297–303Google Scholar
- Rengasamy P (2002) Transient salinity and subsoil constraints to dryland farming in australian sodic soils: an overview. Aust J Exp Agr 42:351-361Google Scholar
- Rhoades JD (1996) Salinity electrical conductivity and total dissolved solid. In: Page AL, Sommer CE, Nelson PW (eds) Methods of soil analysis. In: part 3. Chemical methods. ASA/SSSA, Madison, pp 417–436Google Scholar
- Sheoran V, Sheoran AS, Poonia P (2010) Soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation: a review. Int J Soil Sediment Water 3:1-20Google Scholar
- Touceda-González M, Álvarez-López V, Prieto-Fernández Á, Rodríguez-Garrido B, Trasar-Cepeda C, Mench M, Puschenreiter M, Quintela-Sabarís C, Macías-García F, Kidd PS (2017) Aided phytostabilisation reduces metal toxicity, improves soil fertility and enhances microbial activity in Cu-rich mine tailings. J Environ Manag 186:301–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang JG, Xu XW, Lei JQ et al (2008) The salt accumulation at the shifting aeolian sandy soil surface with high salinity groundwater drip irrigation in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. Chin Sci Bull 53:63–70Google Scholar
- Zohuriaan-Mehr MJ, Kabiri K (2008) Superabsorbent polymer materials: a review, Iran. Iran Polym J 17:451–477Google Scholar