Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 11, pp 3688–3698 | Cite as

Influence of individual and combined application of biochar, Bacillus megaterium, and phosphatase on phosphorus availability in calcareous soil

  • Xiangru Zhang
  • Haixiao Li
  • Meng Li
  • Guoqi Wen
  • Zhengyi HuEmail author
Soils, Sec 2 • Global Change, Environ Risk Assess, Sustainable Land Use • Research Article



Phosphorus (P) in calcareous soil often needs to be replenished repeatedly. P-enriched biochar is expected to improve soil available P. However, the effect of acid biochar incorporated with other P activators on the P availability in calcareous soil is rarely reported.

Materials and methods

One soil incubation for 56 days was conducted to investigate the influence of individual application of acid biochar (B), phosphatase (E), Bacillus megaterium (M), and their combined application (BE, BM, EM, BEM) on soil P availability, based on analysis of Olsen-P, water-soluble P, P forms, acid phosphomonoesterase (AcP), alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) activity, and pH after 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of incubation.

Results and discussion

Results indicated that individual application of B significantly increased soil Olsen-P and AcP compared with CK in the whole incubation period. Individual application of M significantly increased soil AcP and AlP on the 14th and 56th day of incubation, but decreased soil Olsen-P significantly in the whole incubation.


Individual application of B was the best measure for improving P availability in calcareous soil, followed by application of BM. But individual application of E or M was not recommended. Further investigations are required to investigate the influence of acid biochar on P availability in calcareous soil at the field scale.


Acid biochar Liquid-state 31P-NMR spectroscopy Olsen-P Soil phosphorus activators Water-soluble P 


Funding information

This research was funded by the National Key Research and Development Project (No. 2016YFD0800100-04) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M601095).

Supplementary material

11368_2019_2338_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.3 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1294 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiangru Zhang
    • 1
  • Haixiao Li
    • 2
  • Meng Li
    • 3
  • Guoqi Wen
    • 1
  • Zhengyi Hu
    • 1
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentUniversity of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.College of Environment Science and EngineeringNankai UniversityTianjinChina
  3. 3.State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk AssessmentChinese Research Academy of Environmental SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Research Center for Eco-Environmental SciencesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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