Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 10, pp 3534–3544 | Cite as

The bioremediation of metolachlor in soil using Rhodospirillum rubrum after wastewater treatment

  • Pan Wu
  • Jiarong ShiEmail author
  • Ying Zhang
  • Yanling Wang
  • Xiaoxia OuEmail author
  • Ziqiao Han
  • Xiaozhen Wu
  • Rou Zhao
  • Weiguang Yang
Soils, Sec 3 • Remediation and Management of Contaminated or Degraded Lands • Research Article



Reliable and effective techniques for removing contaminants from soil are highly desirable. However, metolachlor residue bioremediation and soil fertility improvement by Rhodospirillum rubrum (R. rubrum) in effluent after wastewater treatment have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of bioremediation of metolachlor residues in soil and soil fertility improvement by R. rubrum in effluent and to explain the mechanism that R. rubrum in effluent was induced to express the regulatory gene.

Materials and methods

Soybean processing wastewater was obtained from Harbin Soybean Products Machining Factory. Soil samples were the surface soil (0–30 cm) from campus (1.77 g/kg total N, 4.15 g/kg total P, 1.58 g/kg total K, 17 g/kg SOM, 0.07 g/kg SMBC). Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase regulatory gene, MAPKKKs gene, was measured by RT-PCR.

Results and discussion

Compared to control treatment, metolachlor was removed efficiently and soil fertility was remediated by effluent containing R. rubrum. The removal in concentrations reached 2.97 mg/L (99%). Soil organic matter (SOM) and SMBC were enhanced 42 times. Molecular analysis revealed that metolachlor induced cpm gene expression to synthesize cytochrome P450 monooxygenase through activating MAPKKKs gene in MAPK signal transduction pathway.


Bioremediation of metolachlor in soil and improvement of soil fertility using R. rubrum in effluent were feasible. Metolachlor, as environmental pressure, induced cpm gene expression to synthesize cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and to remove metolachlor through activating MAPKKKs, MAPKKs, MAPKs genes in MAPK signal transduction pathway.


Bioremediation cpm gene Effluent Metolachlor,R. rubrum Soil 


Funding information

The authors received financial support and basic scientific research service fees from the National Nature Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 41625002), the National Natural Science Foundation Young of China (Grant No. 31700432), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31700432; 31470550; 81500493; 31400386; 51778114), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (Grant No. 2015A030313098), Application Technology Research and Development Projects of Harbin (Grant No. 2016RAXXJ103), the MOA Modern Agricultural Talents Support Project of the Central University and Dalian Nationalities University (0113-20000101).

Supplementary material

11368_2019_2279_MOESM1_ESM.docx (198 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 198 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pan Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jiarong Shi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ying Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yanling Wang
    • 3
  • Xiaoxia Ou
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ziqiao Han
    • 1
  • Xiaozhen Wu
    • 1
  • Rou Zhao
    • 1
  • Weiguang Yang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environment and ResourcesDalian Minzu UniversityDalianChina
  2. 2.School of Resources and EnvironmentNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinChina
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesiologythe third affiliated hospital of SunYat-Sen UniversityGuangzhouChina

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