Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 5, pp 2417–2432 | Cite as

Influence of different organic geo-sorbents on Spinacia oleracea grown in chromite mine-degraded soil: a greenhouse study

  • Javed NawabEmail author
  • Nayab Khan
  • Riaz Ahmed
  • Sardar KhanEmail author
  • Junaid Ghani
  • Ziaur Rahman
  • Fawad Khan
  • Xiaoping WangEmail author
  • Juma Muhammad
  • Hassan Sher
Soils, Sec 3 • Remediation and Management of Contaminated or Degraded Lands • Research Article



Potentially toxic element (PTE) concentrations in mine-degraded soil and their bioaccumulation in food crops is a public health concern worldwide. The current study investigates the influence of organic geo-sorbents including biochar (B), farmyard manure (FYM), and peat moss (PTM) on PTE in chromite mine-degraded soil and their subsequent effects on spinach biomass, PTE uptake, average dietary intake (ADI), and health risk (HRI) associated with PTE via spinach consumption.

Materials and methods

Chromite mine-degraded soil samples were collected from different mining sites in Kohistan region. Pot experiments were carried out in the greenhouse environment. The selected geo-sorbents (B, FYM and PTM) were mixed at application rates of 1%, 2%, and 5%. Contaminated soil without geo-sorbents (control treatment) was also included in each batch of the experiments. Local FYM and PTM were used in this experiment, while B was provided by the Institute of Urban Environment (CAS) Xiamen, China. The total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and total sulfur (S) contents in mine-degraded soil and organic geo-sorbents were measured using a macro-elementor (VarioMax CNS, Germany). Total (acid digestion) and bioavailable PTE (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn, and Pb) concentrations in mine-degraded soil and spinach were determined using inductive coupled plasma mass spectrophotometer (ICP-MS 7500 CX, Agilent Technologies, USA).

Results and discussion

The addition of organic geo-sorbents effectively immobilized the PTE concentrations in mine-degraded soil, and increased the major nutrient contents and thereby reduced the bioaccumulation of PTE (Cr, As, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Pb) in spinach. Consequently, B2, B5, FYM2, FYM5, PTM2, and PTM5 amendments significantly (p < 0.001) increased the biomass, whereas the B1, FYM1, and PTM1 addition showed no significant increase in spinach biomass as compared to the control treatment. The results showed that all the organic geo-sorbents had significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the As uptake in spinach, while B2, B5, FYM2, FYM5, and PTM5 significantly (p < 0.001) decreased PTE bioaccumulation as compared to the control treatment.


The highest application rate (5%) showed the best result in increasing the spinach growth and biomass as well as reducing the PTE mobility in soil, and their bioaccumulation in spinach, as compared to 1% and 2% application rates and also with the control treatment. Furthermore, the average dietary intake (ADI) of PTE and health risk indices (HRIs) reduced via spinach consumption for both the children and adults, due to the addition of selected organic geo-sorbents used for soil amendments.


Bioaccumulation Health risk Mine-degraded soil Potentially toxic element Spinach 


Funding information

The financial support was provided by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), China, under CAS (PIFI) postdoctoral research (Grant No. 2017PB0062) to the first author.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interest.


  1. Abbasi MK, Anwar AA (2015) Ameliorating effects of biochar derived from poultry manure and white clover residues on soil nutrient status and plant growth promotion—greenhouse experiments. PLoS One 10:e0131592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad M, Lee SS, Yang JE, Ro HM, Lee YH, Ok YS (2012) Effects of soil dilution and geo-sorbents (mussel shell, cow bone, and biochar) on Pb availability and phytotoxicity in military shooting range soil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 79:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmad M, Ok YS, Rajapaksha AU, Lim JE, Kim BY, Ahn JH, Lee YH, Al-Wabel MI, Lee SE, Lee SS (2016) Lead and copper immobilization in a shooting range soil using soybean stover- and pine needle-derived biochars: chemical, microbial and spectroscopic assessments. J Hazard Mater 301:179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali K, Arif M, Jan M et al (2015) Biochar: a novel tool to enhance wheat productivity and soil fertility on sustainable basis under wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern. Pak J Bot 47:1023–1031Google Scholar
  5. Alkarkhi AFM, Ismail N, Easa AM (2008) Assessment of arsenic and heavy metal contents in cockles (Anadara granosa) using multivariate statistical techniques. J Hazard Mater 150:783–789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angelova V, Ivanov R, Pevicharova G, Ivanov K (2010) Effect of organic geo-sorbents on PTE uptake by potato plants. 19th World Congress of Soil Science. Soil Solutions for a Changing World Brisbane, Australia. Published on DVDGoogle Scholar
  7. Antoniadis V, Shaheen SM, Boersch J et al (2017) Bioavailability and risk assessment of potentially toxic elements in garden edible vegetables and soils around a highly contaminated former mining area in Germany. J Environ Manag 186:192–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atkinson CJ, Fitzgerald JD, Hipps NA (2010) Potential mechanisms for achieving agricultural benefits from biochar application to temperate soils: a review. Plant Soil 337:1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Babel S, Kurniawan TA (2003) Low-cost adsorbents for heavy metals uptake from contaminated water: a review. J Hazard Mater 97:219–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bailey SE, Olin TJ, Bricka RM, Adrian DD (1999) A review of potentially low-cost sorbents for heavy metals. Water Res 33:2469–2479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Gomez-Eyles JL (2010) Effects of biochar and green-waste compost amendments on mobility, bioavailability and toxicity ofinorganic and organic contaminants in a multi-element polluted soil. Environ Pollut 158:2282–2287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beesley L, Marmiroli M (2011) The immobilisation and retention of soluble arsenic, cadmium and zinc by biochar. Environ Pollut 159:474–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bian R, Chen D, Liu X, Cui L, Li L, Pan G et al (2013) Biochar soil amendment as a solution to prevent Cd-tainted rice from China: results from a cross-site field experiment. Ecol Eng 58:378–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bolan N, Kunhikrishnan A, Thangara R, Kumpiene J, Park J et al (2014) Remediation of heavy metal(loid)s contaminated soils—to mobilize or to immobilize? J Hazard Mater 266:141–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brennan A, Jiménez EM, Alburquerque JA, Knapp CW, Switzer C (2014) Effects of biochar and activated carbon amendment on maize growth and the uptake and measured availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTE). Environ Pollut 193:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown S, Chaney RL, Hallfrisch JG, Xue Q (2003) Effects of biosolids processing on lead bioavailability in urban soil. J Environ Qual 32:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ding Q, Cheng G, Wang Y et al (2017) Effects of natural factors on the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils surrounding mining regions. Sci Total Environ 578:577–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Downie A, Crosky A, Munroe P (2009) Physical properties of biochar. Biochar for environmental management. Sci Tech pp 13–32Google Scholar
  19. Edenborn SL, Edenborn HM, Krynock RM, Haug KLZ (2015) Influence of biochar application methods on the phytostabilization of a hydrophobic soil contaminated with lead and acid tar. J Environ Manag 150:226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Eisler R (2004) Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 180:133–165Google Scholar
  21. Farahat E, Linderholm HW (2015) The effect of long-term waste water irrigation on accumulation and transfer of heavy metals in Cupressus sempervirens leaves and adjacent soils. Sci Total Environ 512–513:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Farrell M, Jones DL (2010) Use of composts in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. J Hazard Mater 175:575–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fellet G, Marchiol L, Delle Vedove G, Peressotti A (2011) Application of biochar on mine tailings: effects and perspectives for land reclamation. Chemosphere 83:1262–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fine P, Scagnossi A, Chen Y, Mingelgrin U (2005) Practical and mechanistic aspects of the removal of cadmium from aqueous systems using peat. Environ Pollut 138:358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fletcher CJN, Leake RC, Haslam HW (1986) Tectonic setting, mineralogy and chemistry of a metamorphose stratiform base metal deposit within the Himalayas of Pakistan. J Geol Soc Lond 143:521–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glaser B, Lehmann J, Zech W (2002) Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal—a review. Biol Fert Soils 35:219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gomez-Eyles JL, Beesley L, Moreno-Jiménez E, Ghosh U, Sizmur T (2013) The potential of biochar geo-sorbents to remediate contaminated soils. In: Ladygina N, Rineau F (eds) Biochar and Soil Biota. CRC Press, pp 100–133Google Scholar
  28. Gondek K (2010) Zinc and cadmium accumulation in maize (Zea mays L) and the concentration of mobile forms of these metals in soil after application of farmyard manure and sewage sludge. J Elem 15:639–652Google Scholar
  29. Gupta S, Nayek S, Saha RH, Satpati S (2008) Assessment of heavy metal accumulation in macrophyte, agricultural soil and crop plants adjacent to discharge zone of sponge iron factory. Environ Geol 55:731–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Igwe JC, Abia AA (2006) A bio separation process for removing heavy metals from waste water using biosorbents. Afr J Biotechnol 5:1167–1179Google Scholar
  31. Jiang J, Xu RK (2013) Application of crop straw derived biochars to Cu(II) contaminated Ultisol: evaluating role of alkali and organic functional groups in Cu(II) immobilization. Bioresour Technol 133:537–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnston AE, Poulton PR, Coleman K (2009) Soil organic matter: its importance in sustainable agriculture and carbon dioxide fluxes. Adv Agron 101:1–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaplan O, Ince M, Yaman M (2011) Sequential extraction of cadmium in different soil phases and plant parts from a former industrialized area. Environ Chem Lett 9:397–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Khan MA, Ding X, Khan S, Brusseau ML, Khan A, Nawab J (2018) The influence of various organic amendments on the bioavailability and plant uptake of cadmium present in mine-degraded soil. Sci Total Environ 636:810–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Khan MJ, Azeem MT, Jan MT, Perveen S (2012) Effect of amendments on chemical immobilization of heavy metals in sugar mill contaminated soils. Soil Environ 31:55–66Google Scholar
  36. Khan S, Chao C, Waqas M, Arp HP, Zhu YG (2013) Sewage sludge biochar influence upon rice (Oryza sativa L) yield, metal bioaccumulation and greenhouse gas emissions. Environ Sci Technol 47:8624–8632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Khan K, Khan H, Lu Y, Ihsanullah I, Nawab J, Khan S et al (2014a) Evaluation of toxicological risk of foodstuffs contaminated with heavy metals in Swat, Pakistan. Ecotox Environ Safe 108:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Khan S, Reid BJ, Li G, Zhu YG (2014b) Application of biochar to soil reduces cancer risk via rice consumption: a case study in Miaoqian Village, Longyan, China. Environ Int 68:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Khan S, Waqas M, Ding F, Shamshad I, Arp HPH, Li G (2015) The influence of various biochars on the bioaccessibility and bioaccumulation of PAHS and potentially toxic elements to turnips (Brassica rapa, L.). J Hazard Mater 300:243–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kim HS, Kim KH (2011) Physical properties of the horticultural substrate according to mixing ratio of peatmoss, perlite and vermiculite. Korean J Soil Sci Fertil 44:321–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kumpiene J, Ore S, Lagerkvist A, Maurice C (2007) Stabilization of Pb and Cu contaminated soil using coal fly ash and peat. Environ Pollut 145:365–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lavado RS (2006) Concentration of potentially toxic elements in field crops grown near and far from cities of the Pampas (Argentina). J Environ Manag 80:116–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lee SJ, Lee ME, Chung JW, Park JH, Huh KY, Jun GI (2013) Immobilization of lead from Pb-contaminated soil amended with peat moss. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. J Chem Article ID 509520Google Scholar
  44. Lehmann J, Joseph S (2009) Biochar for environmental management: an introduction. In: Lehmann J, Joseph S (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science and technology. Earthscan, London, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  45. Li ZF, Wang Q, Zhang WJ, Du ZL, He XH, Zhang QZ (2016) Contributions of nutrients in biochar to increase spinach production: a pot experiment. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 47:2003–2007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Machida YJ, Machida JK, Teer AD (2005) Acute reduction of an origin recognition complex (ORC) subunit in human cells reveals a requirement of ORC for Cdk2 activation. J Biol Chem 280:27624–27630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mendez A, Gomez A, Paz-Ferreiro J, Gasco G (2012) Effects of sewage sludge biochar on plant metal availability after application to a Mediterranean soil. Chemosphere 89:1354–1359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Muhammad S, Shah T, Khan S (2011) Heavy metal concentrations in soil and wild plants growing around Pb–Zn sulfide terrain in the Kohistan region, northern Pakistan. Microchem J 99:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Namgay T, Singh B, and Singh BP (2010) Influence of biochar application to soil on the availability of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn to maize (Zea mays L.). J Aust Soil Res 48:638–647Google Scholar
  50. Nawab J, Khan S, Shah MT, Khan K, Huang Q, Ali R (2015a) Quantification of heavy metals in mining affected soil and their bioaccumulation in native plant species. Int J Phytoremediat 17:801–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nawab J, Khan S, Shah MT, Qamar Z, Din I, Mahmood Q et al (2015b) Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, northern Pakistan. Environ Monit Assess 187:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nawab J, Khan S, Aamir M, Shamshad I, Qamar Z, Din I, Huang Q (2016a) Organic amendments impact the availability of heavy metal(loid)s in mine-degraded soil and their phytoremediation by Penisitum americanum and Sorghum bicolor. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:2381–2390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nawab J, Khan S, Shah MT, Gul N, Ali A, Khan K et al (2016b) Heavy metal bioaccumulation in native plants in chromite impacted sites: a search for effective remediating plant species. Clean Soil Air Water 44:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nawab J, Ghani J, Khan S, Xiaoping W (2018a) Minimizing the risk to human health due to the ingestion of arsenic and toxic metals in vegetables by the application of biochar, farmyard manure and peat moss. J Environ Manage 214:172–183.
  55. Nawab J, Farooqi S, Wang XP, Khan S, Khan A (2018b) Levels, dietary intake, and health risk of potentially toxic metals in vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops in Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:5558–5571Google Scholar
  56. Novak JM, Spokas KA, Cantrell KB et al (2014) Effects of biochars and hydrochars produced from lignocellulosic and animal manure on fertility of a Mollisol and Entisol. Soil Use Manag 30:175–181Google Scholar
  57. Ok YS, Oh SE, Ahmad M, Hyun S, Kim KR, Moon DH et al (2010) Effects of natural and calcined oyster shells on Cd and Pb immobilization in contaminated soils. Environ Earth Sci 61:1301–1308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ok YS, Chang SX, Gao B, Chung H-J (2015) SMART biochar technology—a shifting paradigm towards advanced materials and healthcare research. Environ Technol Innov 4:206–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Park JH, Choppala GK, Bolan NS, Chung J, Chuasavathi T (2011) Biochar reduces the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of heavy metals. Plant Soil 348:439–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Park JH, Choppala G, Lee SJ, Bolan N, Chung JW, Edraki M (2013) Comparative sorption of Pb and Cd by biochars and its implication for metal immobilization in soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 224:1711Google Scholar
  61. Pichtel J, Bradway DJ (2008) Conventional crops and organic geo-sorbents for Pb, Cd and Zn treatment at a severely contaminated site. Bioresour Technol 99:1242–1251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Ping L, Xingxiang W, Taolin Z, Dongmei Z, Yuanqiu H (2008) Effects of several amendments on rice growth and uptake of copper and cadmium from a contaminated soil. J Environ Sci 20:449–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pipoyan D, Beglaryan M, Costantini L, Molinari R, Merendino N (2017) Risk assessment of population exposure to toxic trace elements via consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in some mining areas of Armenia. Hum Ecol Risk Assess.
  64. Rashed MN (2010) Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at Southeast Egypt. J Hazard Mater 178:739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rodriguez L, Ruiz E, Alonso-Azcarate J, Rincon J (2009) Heavy metal distribution and chemical speciation in tailings and soils around a Pb-Zn mine in Spain. J Environ Manag 90:1106–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Romero FM, Armienta MA, Gonzalez-Hernandez G (2007) Solid-phase control on the mobility of potentially toxic elements in an abandoned lead/zinc mine tailings impoundment, Taxco, Mexico. Appl Geochem 22:109–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. SEPA (1995) Environmental quality standard for soils. State Environmental Protection Administration, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  68. Shaha SC, Kashem MA, Osman KT (2012) Effect of lime and farmyard manure on the concentration of cadmium in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica). Int Sch Res Net ISRN Agronomy 2012(6):719432. Google Scholar
  69. Singh G, Brar MS, Malhi SS (2007) Decontamination of chromium by farm yard manure application in spinach grown in two texturally different Cr-contaminated soils. J Plant Nutr 30:289–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Stanislawska-Glubiak E, Korzeniowska J, Kocon A (2015) Effect of peat on the accumulation and translocation of heavy metals by maize grown in contaminated soils. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:4706–4714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sondergaard J, Asmund G, Johansen P, Elberling B (2010) Pb isotopes as tracers of mining-related Pb in lichens, seaweed and mussels near a former Pb- Zn mine in West Greenland. Environ Pollut 158:1319–1326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Uchimiya M, Cantrell KB, Hunt PG, Novak JM, Chang S (2012) Retention of heavy metals in a typic kandiudult amended with different manure-based biochars. J Env Qual 41:1138–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Udeigwe TK, Eze PN, Teboh JM, Stietiya MH (2011) Application, chemistry, and environmental implications of contaminant-immobilization geo-sorbents on agricultural soil and water quality. Environ Int 37:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Vano I, Matsushima M, Tang C, Inubushi K (2011) Effects of peat moss and sawdust compost applications on N2O emission and N leaching in blueberry cultivating soils. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 57:348–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Verheijen F, Jeffery S, Bastos AC, Van der Velde M, Diafas I (2010) Biochar application to soils: a critical scientific review of effects of soil properties, processes and functions. JRC Scientific and Technical Reports, EUR 24099- EN, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  76. Vangronsveld J, Herzig R, Weyens N, Boulet J, Adriaensen K, Ruttens A, Thewys T, Vassilev A, Meers E, Nehnevajova E, Van der Lelie D, Mench M (2009) Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:765–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wagner A, Kaupenjohann M (2014) Suitability of biochars (pyro- and hydrochars) for metal immobilization on former sewage-field soils. Eurpean J Soil Sci 65:139–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Walker DJ, Clemente R, Bernal MP (2004) Contrasting effects of manure and compost on soil pH, heavy metal availability and growth of Chenopodium album L. in a soil contaminated by pyritic mine waste. Chemosphere 57:215–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang ZQ, Liu TT, Wang SZ, Meng XM, Wu LH (2007) Review and prospect applied of peat in environmental remediation. Bull Sci Technol 23:278–281Google Scholar
  80. Waqas M, Li G, Khan S, Shamshad I, Reid BJ, Qamar Z, Chao C (2015) Application of sewage sludge and sewage sludge biochar to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and potentially toxic elements (PTE) accumulation in tomato. Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:12114–12123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Younis U, Qayyum MF, Shah MHR, Danish S, Shahzad AN, Mahmood S, Malik SA (2015) Growth, survival and heavy metal (Cd and Ni) uptake of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and fenugreek (Trigonella corniculata) in a biochar-amended sewage-irrigated contaminated soil. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 178:209–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Yuan JH, Xu RK (2012) Effects of biochars generated from crop residues on chemical properties of acid soils from tropical and subtropical China. Soil Res 50:570–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zeng F, Ali S, Zhang H, Ouyang Y, Qiu B, Wu F, Zhang G (2011) The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants. Environ Pollut 159:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhang A, Bian R, Pan G et al (2012) Effects of biochar amendment on soil quality, crop yield and greenhouse gas emission in a Chinese rice paddy: a field study of 2 consecutive rice growing cycles. Field Crop Res 127:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhang A, Bian R, Hussain Q et al (2013) Change in net global warming potential of a rice– wheat cropping system with biochar soil amendment in a rice paddy from China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 173:37–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhuang P, McBride MB, Xia H, Li N, Li Z (2009) Health risk from heavy metals via consumption of food crops in the vicinity of Dabaoshan mine, South China. Sci Total Environ 407:1551–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Tibetan Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of Environmental SciencesAbdul Wali Khan University MardanMardanPakistan
  4. 4.Peshawar Medical CollegeRiphah International University IslamabadIslamabadPakistan
  5. 5.State Key Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of EnvironmentBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina
  6. 6.Department of Environmental SciencesUniversity of PeshawarPeshawarPakistan
  7. 7.Department of Environmental and Conservation SciencesUniversity of SwatSwatPakistan
  8. 8.Department of MicrobiologyAbdul Wali Khan University MardanMardanPakistan
  9. 9.Department of Environmental SciencesShaheed Benazir Bhutto UniversityUpper DirPakistan
  10. 10.Center for Plant Science and Biodiversity University of SwatSwatPakistan

Personalised recommendations