Assessment of the retardation of selected herbicides onto Danube sediment based on small column tests
- 37 Downloads
This study utilizes column tests to investigate the retardation of certain herbicides with different hydrophobicities (atrazine, alachlor and trifluralin) during transport through surface Danube sediment. The influence of water matrix on the retardation factor Rd and Freundlich constant Kf is investigated. The results are compared with batch tests to establish whether different methodologies result in similar or different conclusions.
Materials and methods
A stainless steel column was filled with natural Danube sediment. Three water matrices were investigated: synthetic, Danube surface, and deep groundwater rich in natural organic matter (NOM). The goal was to examine whether different water matrices would result in changes in the Rd and corresponding Kf values. After a tracer experiment, single herbicide solutions were tested in the three water matrices. Herbicides were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC/ECD). Retardation factors obtained in the column experiments were calculated using Transmod software (version 2.2). The Kf values calculated were compared with the values obtained in previous batch experiments.
Results and discussion
A breakthrough curve (BTC) for trifluralin could not be obtained during the experiment. Atrazine Rd values were almost the same in the natural matrices (54 and 55 for the ground and surface waters, respectively), and lower in the synthetic water (40). Alachlor Rd values in the three water matrices were very similar (30–35). The corresponding Kf values for alachlor (8.47–17.4) were lower than those of atrazine (13.5–27.9). These results differ from those obtained by earlier batch tests, which showed similar Kf values for both atrazine (4.4–9.2) and alachlor (4.43–10.35) in all three matrices. In contrast to the results observed during the batch tests, the column tests exhibited higher Kf values in the natural water matrices than the synthetic water, possibly due to the influence of dissolved organic carbon on herbicide sorption.
Of the three herbicides investigated, the smallest retardation was observed for alachlor. This was unexpected given the relative hydrophobicities of alachlor and atrazine. The potential risk of transport through the sediment may therefore be greater for alachlor than the other two herbicides. This was indicated neither by the batch tests nor from the Koc–Kow estimations. Both herbicides exhibited similar Kd and Kf values in the batch tests, and lower values in the natural water matrices. In comparison, the column tests showed higher Kf values, with higher values in the natural matrices than in the synthetic water matrix.
KeywordsColumn experiments Geosorption Herbicides River sediment Transport of organic pollutants
The research was financed by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia within the project OI 172028.
- EC (2000) Council Directive 2000/60/EC (2000) OJ L327/1, 22.12.2000, European Commission, Luxembourg, pp 1–72Google Scholar
- EC (2011) Guidance Document No. 27, Technical Guidance for Deriving Environmental Quality Standards, Technical Report—2011-055, European Commission, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
- EU (2013) Council Directive 213/39/EU (2013) OJ L 226/1, 12.8.2013, European Commision, Luxembourg, pp 1–17Google Scholar
- Hassett JJ, Banwart WL, Griffen RA (1983) Correlation of compound properties with sorption characteristics of nonpolar compounds by soil and sediments: concept and limitations. In: Francis CW, Auerbach SI (eds) Environmental and solid wastes: characterization, treatment and disposal. Butterworth Publishers, Newton, pp 161–178Google Scholar
- Jekel M, Gruenheid S (2006) Bank filration and groundwater recharge for treatment of polluted surface waters. In: Gimbel R, Graham NJD, Collins MR (eds) Recent progress in slow sand and alternative biofiltration processess. IWA Publishing, pp 519–529Google Scholar
- Kenaga EE, Goring CAI (1980) Relationship between water solubility, soil sorption, octanol–water partitioning, and concentration of chemicals in biota. In: Eaton AC, Parrish JG, Hendricks PR (eds) Aquatic Toxicology ASTM STP 707. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, p 405Google Scholar
- Kragulj M, Dalmacija B, Tričković J, Dalmacija M, Maletić S, Krčmar D, Molnar J, Kerkez Đ, Pešić V (2011) Monitoring of priority substances in the water and sediment of protected zones and surface waters in AP Vojvodina. 40th National Conference with international participation „Voda 2011″, Zlatibor, Serbia, pp 109–114Google Scholar
- Schmidt CK, Lange FT, Brauch HJ (2006) Assessing the impact of local boundary conditions on the fate of organic micropollutants during undergo passage. In: Gimbel R, Graham NJD, Collins MR (eds) Recent progress in slow sand and alternative biofiltration processess. IWA Publishing, London, pp 561–569Google Scholar
- SEPA (2012) Results of testing the quality of surface and groundwater for 2011. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, SerbiaGoogle Scholar
- SEPA (2013) Results of testing the quality of surface and groundwater for 2012. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, SerbiaGoogle Scholar
- SEPA (2014) Results of testing the quality of surface and groundwater for 2013. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, SerbiaGoogle Scholar
- SEPA (2015) Results of testing the quality of surface and groundwater for 2014. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, SerbiaGoogle Scholar
- SEPA (2017a) Results of testing the quality of surface and groundwater for 2015. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, SerbiaGoogle Scholar
- SEPA (2017b) Results of testing the quality of surface and groundwater for 2016. Serbian Environmental Protection Agency, Ministry of Environmental Protection, SerbiaGoogle Scholar
- Talete srl DRAGON (2011) (Software for Molecular Descriptor Calculation) Version 6.0, 2011 (http://talete.mi.it)
- Toxicology Data Network (2003) Hazardous Substances Databank Number: 1003. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA. http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/. Assessed 15 March 2018
- Tričković J, Kragulj Isakovski M, Watson M, Maletić S, Rončević S, Dalmacija B, Konya Z, Kukovecz A (2016) Sorption behaviour of trichlorobenzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the absence or presence of carbon nanotubes in the aquatic environment. Water Air Soil Pollut 227:374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Worch E (2006) Program TransMod (Version 2.2) Program DocumentationGoogle Scholar