Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 946–963 | Cite as

Trace metal distribution in the bed, bank and suspended sediment of the Ravensbourne River and its implication for sediment monitoring in an urban river

  • Ngozi Mokwe-OzonzeadiEmail author
  • Ian Foster
  • Eugenia Valsami-Jones
  • Sharron McEldowney
Sediments, Sec 1 • Sediment Quality and Impact Assessment • Research Article

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify a suitable sediment compartment for sediment quality monitoring by: (a) studying the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the bed, bank and suspended sediment compartments of the Ravensbourne River to establish any differences in trace metal concentrations with compartment; (b) determining the influence of sediment particle size fractions (< 63 μm and 63 μm–2 mm), organic matter and mineralogy on any differences; and (c) examining if metal concentration in each sediment compartment complies with the draft UK sediment quality guidelines.

Materials and methods

Here, we make a comparison of metal concentrations in the bed, bank and suspended sediment compartments of the Ravensbourne River collected using different sampling techniques. We distinguished between two particle size fractions—the < 63 μm fraction (suspended, bed and bank sediment) and the 63 μm–2 mm fractions of bed and bank material with the aim of comparing concentrations between the two fractions. Particle size analysis, metal speciation, organic matter content by loss on ignition and mineralogy using X-ray diffraction were also carried out on each sediment compartment.

Results and discussion

The results showed variations in trace metal concentrations with sediment compartment and with particle size. The mineralogical characteristics were comparable for all sediment compartments, and the relationships between organic matter content and metal concentrations were significant in the majority of the bank sediment samples. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the concentrations of metals between the suspended sediment and the < 63 μm bed sediment fraction, but there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the suspended sediment and the < 63 μm bank sediment fraction. There were also significant differences between the concentrations of metals in the < 63 μm and the 63 μm–2 mm fractions. Generally, the Ravensbourne River did not comply with the draft UK sediment quality guidelines for the metals analysed.

Conclusions

This study shows the importance of identifying a suitable sediment compartment to sample for compliance with sediment quality standards. The bed and suspended sediments are the most widely used sediment compartments for sediment monitoring, but collecting sufficient mass of the < 63 μm sediment fraction for monitoring presents a challenge for urban gravel bed rivers like the Ravensbourne River. It seems appropriate to establish individual monitoring regimes for different rivers.

Keywords

Sediment Sediment compartments Sediment quality Trace metals 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the University of Westminster in collaboration with the Natural History Museum, London. Particle size analysis was carried out at the University of Northampton. We thank Paul Stroud, University of Northampton, for drawing Fig. 1. Further details of this study can be found in the Electronic Supplementary Material.

Supplementary material

11368_2018_2078_MOESM1_ESM.docx (850 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 849 kb)

References

  1. Allen TA (1990) Particle size measurement. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Alves RIS, Sampaio CF, Nadal M, Schuhmacher M, Domingo JL, Segura-Muñoz SI (2014) Metal concentrations in surface water and sediments from Pardo River, Brazil: human health risks. Environ Res 133:149–155Google Scholar
  3. Atibu EK, Devarajan N, Thevenon F, Mwanamoki PM, Tshibanda JB, Mpiana PT, Prabakar K, Mubedi JI, Wildi W, Poté J (2013) Concentration of metals in surface water and sediment of Luilu and Musonoie rivers, Kolwezi-Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Appl Geochem 39:26–32Google Scholar
  4. Bábek O, Grygar TM, Faměra M, Hron K, Nováková T, Sedláček J (2015) Geochemical background in polluted river sediments: how to separate the effects of sediment provenance and grain size with statistical rigour? Catena 135:240–253Google Scholar
  5. Barałkiewicz D, Chudzińska M, Szpakowska B, Świerk D, Gołdyn R, Dondajewska R (2014) Storm water contamination and its effect on the quality of urban surface waters. Environ Monit Assess 186:6789–6803Google Scholar
  6. Bartoli G, Papa S, Sagnella E, Fioretto A (2012) Heavy metal content in sediments along the Calore river: relationships with physical–chemical characteristics. J Environ Manag 95:S9–S14Google Scholar
  7. Barton N (1992) The lost rivers of London: a study of their effects upon London and Londoners, and the effects of London and Londoners upon them. Historical Publications Ltd, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Bilotta GS, Brazier RE (2008) Understanding the influence of suspended solids on water quality and aquatic biota. Water Res 42:2849–2861Google Scholar
  9. Blott SJ, Pye K (2006) Particle size distribution analysis of sand-sized particles by laser diffraction: an experimental investigation of instrument sensitivity and the effects of particle shape. Sedimentology 53:671–685Google Scholar
  10. Bonnail E, Sarmiento AM, DelValls TÁ (2016) The use of a weight-of-evidence approach to address sediment quality in the Odiel River basin (SW, Spain). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 133:243–251Google Scholar
  11. Burton GA Jr (2002) Sediment quality criteria in use around the world. Limnology 3:65–76Google Scholar
  12. Charriau A, Lesven L, Gao Y, Leermakers M, Baeyens W, Ouddane B, Billon G (2011) Trace metal behaviour in riverine sediments: role of organic matter and sulfides. Appl Geochem 26:80–90Google Scholar
  13. Chen EH (1971) The power of the Shapiro-Wilk W test for normality in samples from contaminated normal distributions. J Am Stat Assoc 66:760–762Google Scholar
  14. Chen Y-M, Gao J-b, Yuan Y-Q, Ma J, Yu S (2016) Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: implications for metal pollution assessment. Cont Shelf Res 124:125–133Google Scholar
  15. Ciszewski D, Grygar TM (2016) A review of flood-related storage and remobilization of heavy metal pollutants in river systems. Water Air Soil Pollut 227:1–19Google Scholar
  16. Copas R (1997) The river landscapes of London and the Thames catchment: their status and future. Landsc Res 22:115–131Google Scholar
  17. Counihan TD, Waite IR, Nilsen EB, Hardiman JM, Elias E, Gelfenbaum G, Zaugg SD (2014) A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics. Sci Total Environ 484:331–343Google Scholar
  18. Couture R, Hindarc A, Rognerudd S (2018) Emerging investigator series: geochemistry of trace elements associated with Fe and Mn nodules in the sediment of limed boreal lakes. Environ Sci: Processes Impacts 20:406–414Google Scholar
  19. Crane M (2003) Proposed development of sediment quality guidelines under the European water framework directive: a critique. Toxicol Lett 142:195–206Google Scholar
  20. Davide V, Pardos M, Diserens J, Ugazio G, Thomas R, Dominik J (2003) Characterisation of bed sediments and suspension of the river Po (Italy) during normal and high flow conditions. Water Res 37:2847–2864Google Scholar
  21. Dawson E, Macklin M (1998) Speciation of heavy metals on suspended sediment under high flow conditions in the river Aire, West Yorkshire, UK. Hydrol Process 12:1483–1494Google Scholar
  22. Dean WE (1974) Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition; comparison with other methods. J Sediment Petrol 44:242–248Google Scholar
  23. Di Stefano C, Ferro V, Mirabile S (2010) Comparison between grain-size analyses using laser diffraction and sedimentation methods. Biosyst Eng 106:205–215Google Scholar
  24. Donkin MJ (1991) Loss on ignition as an estimator of soil organic carbon in a horizon forestry soils. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 22:233–241Google Scholar
  25. Environment Agency (2006) The determination of metals in solid environmental samples: methods for the examination of waters and associated materials, in National Laboratory Service p 100, Standing Committee of Analysts, Leicestershire, UKGoogle Scholar
  26. Environment Agency (2016) M18 - monitoring of discharges to water and sewer. In: Technical guidance note. Environment Agency, UKGoogle Scholar
  27. Field A (2001) Discovering statistics using SPSS for Windows. The Cromwell Press Ltd, Great BritainGoogle Scholar
  28. Fok L, Peart MR, Chen J (2012) The influence of geology and land use on the geochemical baselines of the East River basin, China. Catena 101:212–225Google Scholar
  29. Frančišković-Bilinski S, Cukrov N (2014) A critical evaluation of using bulk sediment instead of fine fraction in environmental marine studies, investigated on example of Rijeka harbor, Croatia. Environ Earth Sci 71:341–356Google Scholar
  30. Fraunhofer Institute (2002) Towards the derivation of quality standards for priority substances in the context of the water framework directive:final report of the study: identification of quality standards for priority substances in the field of water policy. EAF(3)-06/06/FHI. Fraunhofer-Institute environmental chemistry and ecotoxicology, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  31. Gasperi J, Garnaud S, Rocher V, Moilleron R (2009) Priority pollutants in surface waters and settleable particles within a densely urbanised area: case study of Paris (France). Sci Total Environ 407:2900–2908Google Scholar
  32. Gellis A, Noe G (2013) Sediment source analysis in the Linganore Creek watershed, Maryland, USA, using the sediment fingerprinting approach: 2008 to 2010. J Soils Sediments 13:1735–1753Google Scholar
  33. Gilbert B, Ono RK, Ching KA, Kim CS (2009) The effects of nanoparticle aggregation processes on aggregate structure and metal uptake. J Colloid Interface Sci 339:285–295Google Scholar
  34. Gray AB, Pasternack GB, Watson EB (2010) Hydrogen peroxide treatment effects on the particle size distribution of alluvial and marsh sediments. Holocene 20:293–301Google Scholar
  35. Grosbois C, Meybeck M, Lestel L, Lefèvre I, Moatar F (2012) Severe and contrasted polymetallic contamination patterns (1900–2009) in the Loire River sediments (France). Sci Total Environ 435–436:290–305Google Scholar
  36. Han C, Qin Y, Zheng B, Ma Y, Zhang L, Cao W (2014) Sediment quality assessment for heavy metal pollution in the Xiangjiang River (China) with the equilibrium partitioning approach. Environ Earth Sci 72:5007–5018Google Scholar
  37. He C, Bartholdy J, Christiansen C (2012) Clay mineralogy, grain size distribution and their correlations with trace metals in the salt marsh sediments of the Skallingen barrier spit, Danish Wadden Sea. Environ Earth Sci 67:759–769Google Scholar
  38. Hedrick LB, Anderson JT, Welsh SA, Lin L-S (2013) Sedimentation in mountain streams: a review of methods of measurement. Nat Resour J 4:92–104Google Scholar
  39. Heiri O, Lotter A, Lemcke G (2001) Loss on ignition as a method for estimating organic and carbonate content in sediments: reproducibility and comparability of results. J Paleolimnol 25:101–110Google Scholar
  40. Helios Rybicka E, Calmano W, Breeger A (1995) Heavy metals sorption/desorption on competing clay minerals; an experimental study. Appl Clay Sci 9:369–381Google Scholar
  41. Ho HH, Swennen R, Cappuyns V, Vassilieva E, Van Gerven T, Van Tran T (2012) Potential release of selected trace elements (as, cd, cu, Mn, Pb and Zn) from sediments in Cam River-mouth (Vietnam) under influence of pH and oxidation. Sci Total Environ 435:487–498Google Scholar
  42. Holcombe G (2009) Certificate of measurement - river sediment certified reference material LGC 6187. Middlesex, UKGoogle Scholar
  43. Horowitz AJ (1991) A primer on sediment-trace element chemistry, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  44. Horowitz AJ (1995) The use of suspended sediment and associated trace elements in water quality studies. International Association of Hydrological Sciences, OxfordshireGoogle Scholar
  45. Horowitz AJ (2003) An evaluation of sediment rating curves for estimating suspended sediment concentrations for subsequent flux calculations. Hydrol Process 17:3387–3409Google Scholar
  46. Horowitz AJ, Elrick KA, Smith JJ (2008) Monitoring urban impacts on suspended sediment, trace element, and nutrient fluxes within the City of Atlanta, Georgia, USA: program design, methodological considerations, and initial results. Hydrol Process 22:1473–1496Google Scholar
  47. Hudson-Edwards KA, Macklin MG, Brewer PA, Dennis IA (2008) Assessment of metal mining-contaminated river sediments in England and Wales (science report: SC030136/SR4). Environment Agency, Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  48. Hurley RR, Rothwell JJ, Woodward JC (2017) Metal contamination of bed sediments in the Irwell and upper Mersey catchments, Northwest England: exploring the legacy of industry and urban growth. J Soils Sediments 17:2648–2665Google Scholar
  49. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (2003) Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements (IAEA-TECDOC-1360), IAEA, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  50. Islam MS, Ahmed MK, Raknuzzaman M, Habibullah -Al- Mamun M, Islam MK (2015) Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: a preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country. Ecol Indic 48:282–291Google Scholar
  51. Jain CK, Singhal DC, Sharma MK (2005) Metal pollution assessment of sediment and water in the river Hindon, India. Environ Monit Assess 105:193–207Google Scholar
  52. Jelodar AH, Rad HA, Navaiynia B, Zazouli M (2012) Heavy metal ions adsorption by suspended particle and sediment of the Chalus River, Iran. Afr J Biotechnol 11:628–634Google Scholar
  53. Juracek K, Ziegler A (2009) Estimation of sediment sources using selected chemical tracers in the Perry Lake basin, Kansas, USA. Int J Sediment Res 24:108–125Google Scholar
  54. Karlsson K, Viklander M, Scholes L, Revitt M (2010) Heavy metal concentrations and toxicity in water and sediment from stormwater ponds and sedimentation tanks. J Hazard Mater 178:612–618Google Scholar
  55. Kellagher R (2012) Flood and coastal defence R&D programme, in preliminary rainfall runoff management for developments R&D technical report W5–074/A/TR/1 Revision D, Environment Agency, Bristol, UKGoogle Scholar
  56. Kim Y, Kim K, Kang H-D, Kim W, Doh S-H, Kim D-S, Kim B-K (2007) The accumulation of radiocesium in coarse marine sediment: effects of mineralogy and organic matter. Mar Pollut Bull 54:1341–1350Google Scholar
  57. Knight C (1842) The journey-book of England- Kent with fifty-eight engravings on wood, and an illuminated map of the county. William Clowes and Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  58. Konert M, Vandenberghe JEF (1997) Comparison of laser grain size analysis with pipette and sieve analysis: a solution for the underestimation of the clay fraction. Sedimentology 44:523–535Google Scholar
  59. Kuusisto-Hjort P, Hjort J (2013) Land use impacts on trace metal concentrations of suburban stream sediments in the Helsinki region, Finland. Sci Total Environ 456–457:222–230Google Scholar
  60. Lee S, Moon J-W, Moon H-S (2003) Heavy metals in the bed and suspended sediments of Anyang River, Korea: implications for water quality. Environ Geochem Health 25:433–452Google Scholar
  61. Lewisham Council and Environment Agency (2010) Ravensbourne River corridor improvement plan. London, UKGoogle Scholar
  62. Li Y, Wang XL, Huang GH, Zhang BY, Guo SH (2009) Adsorption of cu and Zn onto Mn/Fe oxides and organic materials in the extractable fractions of river surficial sediments. Soil Sediment Contam 18:87–101Google Scholar
  63. Lin JG, Chen SY, Su CR (2003) Assessment of sediment toxicity by metal speciation in different particle-size fractions of river sediment. Water Sci Technol 47:233–241Google Scholar
  64. Liu C, Xu J, Liu C, Zhang P, Dai M (2009) Heavy metals in the surface sediments in Lanzhou reach of Yellow River, China. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 82:26–30Google Scholar
  65. Liu B, Hu K, Jiang Z, Yang J, Luo X, Liu A (2011) Distribution and enrichment of heavy metals in a sediment core from the Pearl River estuary. Environ Earth Sci 62:265–275Google Scholar
  66. Luoma S, Rainbow P (2008) Metal contamination in aquatic environment. Science and lateral management. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  67. Maity S, Sahu S, Pandit G (2016) Determination of heavy metals and their distribution in different size fractionated sediment samples using different analytical techniques. Soil Sediment Contam 25:332–345Google Scholar
  68. Matys Grygar T, Popelka J (2016) Revisiting geochemical methods of distinguishing natural concentrations and pollution by risk elements in fluvial sediments. J Geochem Explor 170:39–57Google Scholar
  69. Matys Grygar T, Nováková T, Bábek O, Elznicová J, Vadinová N (2013) Robust assessment of moderate heavy metal contamination levels in floodplain sediments: a case study on the Jizera River, Czech Republic. Sci Total Environ 452-453:233–245Google Scholar
  70. McCartney S, West J (1998) The Lewisham silk mills and the history of an ancient site. Lewisham Local History Society, in association with Greater London Industrial Archaeology Society, London, UKGoogle Scholar
  71. McDonald DM, Lamoureux SF, Warburton J (2010) Assessment of a time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment sampler in a high arctic setting. Geogr Ann Ser A 92:225–235Google Scholar
  72. McKenzie ER, Money JE, Green PG, Young TM (2009) Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples. Sci Total Environ 407:5855–5860Google Scholar
  73. Mudroch A, Azcue JM (1995) Manual of aquatic sediment sampling. CRC/Lewis, FloridaGoogle Scholar
  74. Mudroch A, MacKnight SD (1994) Handbook of techniques for aquatic sediment sampling, 2nd edn. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  75. Nazeer S, Hashmi MZ, Malik RN (2014) Heavy metals distribution, risk assessment and water quality characterization by water quality index of the river Soan, Pakistan. Ecol Indic 43:262–270Google Scholar
  76. O’Connor TP (2004) The sediment quality guideline, ERL, is not a chemical concentration at the threshold of sediment toxicity. Mar Pollut Bull 49:383–385Google Scholar
  77. Palanques A, de Madron XD, Puig P, Fabres J, Guillén J, Calafat A, Canals M, Heussner S, Bonnin J (2006) Suspended sediment fluxes and transport processes in the Gulf of lions submarine canyons. The role of storms and dense water cascading. Mar Geol 234:43–61Google Scholar
  78. Palleiro L, Patinha C, Rodríguez-Blanco ML, Taboada-Castro MM, Taboada-Castro MT (2016) Metal fractionation in topsoils and bed sediments in the Mero River rural basin: bioavailability and relationship with soil and sediment properties. Catena 144:34–44Google Scholar
  79. Palma P, Ledo L, Alvarenga P (2015) Assessment of trace element pollution and its environmental risk to freshwater sediments influenced by anthropogenic contributions: the case study of Alqueva reservoir (Guadiana Basin). Catena 128:174–184Google Scholar
  80. Palmer M (1984) Manual for bottom sediment sample collection, in surveillance and research. U.S Environmental Protection Agency, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  81. Perks M, Warburton J, Bracken L, Reaney S, Emery S, Hirst S (2017) Use of spatially distributed time-integrated sediment sampling networks and distributed fine sediment modelling to inform catchment management. J Environ Manag 202:469–478Google Scholar
  82. Phillips JM, Russell MA, Walling DE (2000) Time-integrated sampling of fluvial suspended sediment: a simple methodology for small catchments. Hydrol Process 14:2589–2602Google Scholar
  83. Plathe K (2010) Nanoparticle - heavy metal associations in river sediments. In Geosciences p 116, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, BlacksburgGoogle Scholar
  84. Polakowski C, Sochan A, Bieganowski A, Ryzak M, Földényi R, Tóth J (2014) Influence of the sand particle shape on particle size distribution measured by laser diffraction method. Int Agrophys 28:195–200Google Scholar
  85. Quek U, Förster J (1993) Trace metals in roof run-off. Water Air Soil Pollut 68:373–389Google Scholar
  86. Quevauviller P (1998) Operationally defined extraction procedures for soil and sediment analysis I. Standardization. Trends Anal Chem 17:289–298Google Scholar
  87. Ramos TB, Gonçalves MC, Branco MA, Brito D, Rodrigues S, Sánchez-Pérez J-M, Sauvage S, Prazeres Â, Martins JC, Fernandes ML, Pires FP (2015) Sediment and nutrient dynamics during storm events in the Enxoé temporary river, southern Portugal. Catena 127:177–190Google Scholar
  88. Rasmussen C, Dalsgaard K (2017) Documentation of tests on particle size methodologies for laser diffraction compared to traditional sieving and sedimentation analysis. Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University. Aarhus Universitetsforlag, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  89. Rodrigues M, Formoso M (2006) Geochemical distribution of selected heavy metals in stream sediments affected by tannery activities. Water Air Soil Pollut 169:167–184Google Scholar
  90. Roig N, Sierra J, Moreno-Garrido I, Nieto E, Gallego EP, Schuhmacher M, Blasco J (2016) Metal bioavailability in freshwater sediment samples and their influence on ecological status of river basins. Sci Total Environ 540:287–296Google Scholar
  91. Rotman R, Naylor L, McDonnell R, MacNiocaill C (2008) Sediment transport on the Freiston shore managed realignment site: an investigation using environmental magnetism. Geomorphology 100:241–255Google Scholar
  92. Russell MA, Walling DE, Hodgkinson RA (2000) Apprisal of a simple sampling device for collecting time-integrated fluvial suspended sediment samples. In Stone M (ed) The role of erosion and sediment transport in nutrient and contaminant transfer (proceedings of a symposium). IAHS Publ no 263, IAHS Press, Wallingford, pp 119–127Google Scholar
  93. Santisteban J, Mediavilla R, López-Pamo E, Dabrio C, Zapata MB, García MJ, Castaño S, Martínez-Alfaro P (2004) Loss on ignition: a qualitative or quantitative method for organic matter and carbonate mineral content in sediments? J Paleolimnol 32:287–299Google Scholar
  94. Schaider LA, Senn DB, Estes ER, Brabander DJ, Shine JP (2014) Sources and fates of heavy metals in a mining-impacted stream: temporal variability and the role of iron oxides. Sci Total Environ 490:456–466Google Scholar
  95. Schumacher B (2002) Methods for the determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in soils and sediments. Ecological Risk Assesment Division, Office of Research and Development. U.S Enviromental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  96. Sekabira K, Origa HO, Basamba T, Mutumba G, Kakudidi E (2010) Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the urban stream sediments and its tributaries. Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran) 7:435–446Google Scholar
  97. Simpson SL, Batley GE, Chariton AA, Stauber JL, King CK, Chapman JC, Hyne RV, Gale SA, Roach AC, Maher WA (2005) Handbook for sediment quality assessment. Centre for Environment Contaminants Research, CSIRO Energy Technology, SydneyGoogle Scholar
  98. Simpson SL, Batley GE, Hamilton IL, Spadaro DA (2011) Guidelines for copper in sediments with varying properties. Chemosphere 85:1487–1495Google Scholar
  99. Smith BPG, Naden PS, Leeks GJL, Wass PD (2003) The influence of storm events on fine sediment transport, erosion and deposition within a reach of the river swale, Yorkshire, UK. Sci Total Environ 314–316:451–474Google Scholar
  100. Sperazza M, Moore JN, Hendrix MS (2004) High-resolution particle size analysis of naturally occurring very fine-grained sediment through laser diffractometry. J Sediment Res 74:736–743Google Scholar
  101. Swapp S (2013) Geochemical instrumentation and analysis: scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Univesity of Wyoming, LaramieGoogle Scholar
  102. Talling P (2011) London's lesser known rivers - Ravensbourne, in London's lost rivers. Random House Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  103. Taylor KG, Owens PN (2009) Sediments in urban river basins: a review of sediment–contaminant dynamics in an environmental system conditioned by human activities. J Soils Sediments 9:281–303Google Scholar
  104. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Bisson M (1979) Sequentail extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51:844–850Google Scholar
  105. Theuring P, Rode M, Behrens S, Kirchner G, Jha A (2013) Identification of fluvial sediment sources in the Kharaa River catchment, northern Mongolia. Hydrol Process 27:845–856Google Scholar
  106. Tiquio MGJ, Hurel C, Marmier N, Taneez M, Andral B, Jordan N, Francour P (2017) Sediment-bound trace metals in Golfe-Juan Bay, northwestern Mediterranean: distribution, availability and toxicity. Mar Pollut Bull 118:427–436Google Scholar
  107. United Nations Environment Programme (2006) Methods for sediment sampling and analysis (Mediterranean action plan), in review meeting of MED POL - phase III monitoring activities. Palermo (Sicily), ItalyGoogle Scholar
  108. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2001) Methods for collection, storage and manipulation of sediments for chemical and toxicological analyses: technical manual EPA 823-B-01-002, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  109. Vega FA, Covelo EF, Andrade ML, Marcet P (2004) Relationships between heavy metals content and soil properties in minesoils. Anal Chim Acta 524:141–150Google Scholar
  110. Wang X, Li Y (2011) Measurement of cu and Zn adsorption onto surficial sediment components: new evidence for less importance of clay minerals. J Hazard Mater 189:719–723Google Scholar
  111. Weaver C (1956) A discussion on the origin of clay minerals in sedimentary rocks. Clay Clay Miner 5:159–173Google Scholar
  112. Yao Q, Wang X, Jian H, Chen H, Yu Z (2015) Characterization of the particle size fraction associated with heavy metals in suspended sediments of the Yellow River. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:6725–6744Google Scholar
  113. Yutong Z, Qing X, Shenggao L (2016) Distribution, bioavailability, and leachability of heavy metals in soil particle size fractions of urban soils (northeastern China). Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 23:14600–14607Google Scholar
  114. Zafra C, Temprano J, Tejero I (2011) Distribution of the concentration of heavy metals associated with the sediment particles accumulated on road surfaces. Environ Technol 23:997–1008Google Scholar
  115. Zhang G, Yang X, Liu Y, Jia Y, Yu G, Ouyang S (2004) Copper(II) adsorption on Ca-rectorite, and effect of static magnetic field on the adsorption. J Colloid Interface Sci 278:265–269Google Scholar
  116. Zhao H, Li X, Wang X, Tian D (2010) Grain size distribution of road-deposited sediment and its contribution to heavy metal pollution in urban runoff in Beijing, China. J Hazard Mater 183:203–210Google Scholar
  117. Zhou X, Li A, Jiang F, Lu J (2015) Effects of grain size distribution on mineralogical and chemical compositions: a case study from size-fractional sediments of the Huanghe (Yellow River) and Changjiang (Yangtze River). Geol J 50:414–433Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life SciencesUniversity of WestminsterLondonUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Arts, Science and TechnologyUniversity of NorthamptonNorthamptonUK
  3. 3.Geography DepartmentRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa
  4. 4.School of Geography, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations