Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on Kandelia candel rhizospheric bacterial community as determined by high-throughput sequencing analysis
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The biomass and diversity of mangroves suffer a significant decline when S. alterniflora invades in China. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on Kandelia candel rhizospheric bacterial community and to explore the control factors of the soil function.
Materials and methods
In this study, the high-throughput sequencing method was applied to assess the composition and diversity of rhizospheric bacterial community in mangrove community (MC), S. alterniflora community (SC), and mangrove-S. alterniflora community (MS). Relationships were also analyzed between the relative abundances of bacterial communities and soil nutrients.
Results and discussion
The results revealed that S. alterniflora invasion resulted in a significant decline of rhizospheric nutrients. The S. alterniflora invades and exacerbated the microecological imbalance in the rhizospheric soils of MS, and markedly decreased the soil bacterial community diversity. The change trends of five alpha diversity indexes followed the order of SC > MC > MS. At the phylum level, S. alterniflora invasion resulted in a significant increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Euryarchaeota, but a significant decrease of Firmicutes and Nitrospirae. At the genus level, S. alterniflora invasion resulted in obvious differences in rhizospheric bacterial community of MS. Both the correlation and redundancy analyses suggested that the soil nutrient content was the main soil factor affecting the relative abundance of bacterial communities, and the soil nutrients play an important role in the shifts of soil bacterial community diversity.
This study documented the degradation of soil nutrients and the significant variations of rhizospheric bacterial community in MS under S. alterniflora invasion.
KeywordsCommunity composition High-throughput sequencing Mangrove Soil microbes Spartina alterniflora
The authors would like to thank Wu Linkun, Chen Jun, and Wu Hongmiao in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University for experimental guidance during the study. We also thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for its linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.
This work was supported by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (31500443), and the Scientific Research Foundation of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (XJQ201718) and Fujian-Taiwan Joint Innovative Centre for Germplasm Resources and Cultivation of Crop (grant no. 2015-75; FJ 2011 Program, China).
Compliance with ethical standards
This study has been approved by the Minjiang River Estuary Wetland National Nature Reserve Management Committee, which takes care of the planning and protecting of Minjiang River Estuary Wetland. The study did not involve any endangered or protected species. All the data in this study can be published and shared.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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