Evaluation of environmental health of the Kolomenskoye Park under anthropogenic pressure from Moscow City
- 37 Downloads
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the environmental state of the territory of the famous Russian landscape-architectural museum Kolomenskoye. This park reserve is located on the left bank of the Moscow River in very close proximity to a heavy industrial area of Moscow and a major highway. The museum’s territory is of a concern to the environmental state, and our data is a part of the monitoring program.
Materials and methods
Assessments of snow, snow run-off, and soils were carried out to describe the current state of the environment. Analyses of the pH, major cations, conductivity, heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Cu), and bioassay techniques were used to assess Kolomenskoye’s area.
Results and discussion
The content of acid forms of heavy metals (HM) in soils varied widely (Cu—1.3–21.6; Zn—2.7–30.2; Cd—0.07–3.48; Pb—2.21–15.64 mg kg−1). High concentrations of Cd (3.48 mg kg−1) were found at a distance from the highway, while the other parameters were at an accepted level. Meltwaters significantly increased the “leaching” of almost all soluble components, especially Na+ ions (1–70 mg l−1) and Ca2+ (10–340 mg l−1) ones. The total load of HM (the sum of HM: Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni) near the road (2 m from the fence to the park) was 470 mg kg−1 and at the control plot (150 m from the fence)—it was 590 mg kg−1, i.e., almost 20% more. The toxicity determined by different test objects was observed near the road.
The data indicate a real threat of the pollution, not only for the territories adjacent to the highway but also to the remote areas. The intensity of pollutions is associated with the distance from the road and migrations of heavy metals. Their intensive penetration into the territory is mainly connected with small dust fractions.
KeywordsBioassay Heavy metals Kolomenskoye museum-reserve Snow samples
The authors highly appreciate the staff of the Kolomenskoye museum-reserve for their assistance in the research conduction. We are grateful to our reviewers for their valuable suggestions and comments. We sincerely thank the Editorial Manager of the Journal Moira Ledger for her attention and guidance. We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Polly Chelton for the language support.
- Evans CV, Fanning DS, Short JR (2000) Human-influenced soils. In: Brown RB, Huddleston JH, Anderson JL (eds) Managing soils in an urban environment. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison Agronomy Monographs 39:33–67Google Scholar
- Gerasimova MI, Stroganova MN (2003) Genesis. Geography. Recultivation. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
- ISO 11269-2:2012 (2012) Soil quality—determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora -Part 2: effects of contaminated soil on the emergence and early growth of higher plantsGoogle Scholar
- ISO 6341:2012 (2012) Water quality—determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea). Acute toxicity testGoogle Scholar
- Method of determining the toxicity of water extracts from soils, sewage sludge and waste drinking, wastewater and natural water on mortality of the test object Dаphnia magna Straus (2011) Available via DIALOG. https://docplan.ru/Index2/1/4293767/4293767837.htm (in Russian)
- Methodical Recommendations for the Detection of Dehydrated and Contaminated Lands (1995) Available via DIALOG. http://docs.cntd.ru/document/902101153 (in Russian)
- Mineev VG (ed) (2001) Agrochemistry practicum. MSU (in Russian)Google Scholar
- Samoilov BL, Morozova GV (2011) The red data book of Moscow. Department of Nature Use and Environmental Conservation of Moscow, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
- Sujetoviene G, Griauslyte L (2008) Toxicity assessment of roadside soil using wild oat (Avena sativa L.) and cress (Lepidium sativum L.) morphometric and biochemical parameters. Environ Res Eng Manag 46:29–35Google Scholar
- The Moscow State Integrated Art and Historical Architectural and Natural Landscape Museum-Reserve (2017) Available via DIALOG. http://mgomz.com/about-2
- WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB) (2014) World Reference Base for Soil Resources International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources (2014) FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar