Sorption-desorption behaviors of heavy metals by biochar-compost amendment with different ratios in contaminated wetland soil
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Heavy metal pollution in soils has become a global environmental concern. The combination of biochar and compost has already been proved to be an attractive method in contaminated soil. The objective was to study the sorption-desorption characteristics of Cd, Cu, and Zn onto soil amended with combined biochar-compost.
Materials and methods
In this study, the soil was amended with combinations of biochar and compost with different ratios at 10% (w/w). To determine the sorption-desorption behaviors of heavy metals by biochar-compost amendment with different ratios, we determine the effects of different ratios on soil properties and use batch experiments to investigate sorption-desorption behaviors of Cd, Cu, and Zn.
Results and discussion
The results show that the Langmuir and Freundlich model can well describe the adsorption isotherm of Cd, Cu, and Zn in the soils with or without biochar-compost combinations. The incorporation of amendment combinations into soil significantly promotes the sorption affinity of soil on metals. The sorption capacity of Cd and Zn was improved as the compost percentage rose in biochar-compost more likely due to the increase of organic matter and available phosphorus, while that of Cu was stronger with 10 and 20% biochar addition in biochar-compost combinations likely as the result of the formation of new specific adsorption sites and the mobile Cu adsorption in compost after adding a certain amount of biochar in amendment mixtures. Additionally, a certain proportion of biochar applied into amendment mixtures could suppress desorption of Cd and Cu by pH change, and the Zn desorption rate gradually decreased as the compost ratio increased in amendment mixtures.
The results indicated that the various ratios between biochar and compost have a significant effect on sorption-desorption of metals in soil, which helps us consider the effective combination of biochar and compost in soil.
KeywordsAdsorption-desorption Combined biochar-compost Different ratios Heavy metals Wetland soil
The authors thank Xiaoshan Huiren organic fertilizer Co. Ltd. Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.
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