First series of seafood datasets in ecoinvent: setting the pace for future development
The number of life cycle assessment studies related to seafood has risen considerably in the past decade. Despite this proliferation, major life cycle inventory databases tend to lack information describing this sector. Hence, the main objectives of this study are to present the first effort to aggregate and standardize seafood-related datasets in the ecoinvent database and to explain the main data sources and methodological choices used in the building of the datasets.
A list of the main datasets included in this first series is presented with a brief description of the underlying modelling approaches. Seafood capture, production and processing activities were modelled as the use phase of the required infrastructure. The full life cycle of infrastructure was considered, from construction, through use and maintenance to end-of-life.
Results and discussion
Some of the most representative seafood industries in South America were modelled, namely Peruvian anchovy and hake fisheries, Andean trout, Brazilian tilapia and Peruvian fishmeal production, as well as the production of canned, frozen, cured and of a multi-ingredient fish-based product (fish sticks). Inventory data were found to be in line with those of seafood LCA literature and driven by the parameters widely known to be critical: fuel use intensity for fisheries, feed conversion ratio for aquaculture and energy intensity for seafood processing and reduction into fishmeal. The modelling approach was modular and intuitive, thus useful and reproducible by database users and data providers.
The datasets created constitute a robust basis for the use of seafood-related data in international databases. It is expected that this work will stimulate further efforts by practitioners and data providers to model their inventory data into ecoinvent and other life cycle inventory databases.
KeywordsAquaculture Fisheries Fishmeal Life cycle inventories Seafood South America
The authors of this manuscript would like to thank Pedro Villanueva-Rey and Daniel Verán-Leigh for their support in building the datasets. María Teresa Moreira and Gumersindo Feijoo, from the Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Pierre Fréon, from the French Research Institute for Development (IRD), and Jara Laso, María Margallo and Rubén Aldaco, from the Universidad de Cantabria, are all thankfully acknowledged for their time and expertise on fisheries and seafood processing. Matheus Medeiros (former EMBRAPA and INRA PhD student) is thanked for contributing to the project with aquaculture data for Brazil. Friederike Ziegler and Kristina Bergman (RISE) are thanked for the review efforts.
The Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) and the Sustainable Recycling Industries (SRI) programme partially financed this work.
- Aubin J (2013) Life cycle assessment as applied to environmental choices regarding farmed or wild-caught fish. CAB Rev. https://doi.org/10.1079/PAVSNNR20138011
- Avadí A (2014) Durabilité de la filière d’anchois du Pérou, de la mer aux rayonnages (sustainability of the Peruvian anchoveta supply chains from sea to shelf: towards a new strategy for optimal resource use). Université Montpellier 2, Doctoral School SIBAGHEGoogle Scholar
- AvadíA, Vázquez-Rowe I (2019) South America. In wild capture and aquaculture. Ecoinvent association, ZürichGoogle Scholar
- Bohnes FA, Hauschild MZ, Schlundt J, Laurent A (2018) Life cycle assessments of aquaculture systems: a critical review of reported findings with recommendations for policy and system development. Rev Aquac. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12280
- CloâtreT (2018) Methodological report for the French LCI project on fisheries. ADEME - Agence de l’Environnement et de la Maîtrise de l’EnergieGoogle Scholar
- ColombV, Werf HMG VanDer, AvadíAet al (2018) AGRIBALYSE®: strengths and challenges of a national LCI database initiative. In: Book of abstracts of the 11th international conference on life cycle assessment of food2018 (LCA Food) “Global food challenges towards sustainable consumption and production”. Kasetsart University, KMUTT, NSTDA. Bangkok: Kasetsart Univercity, Résumé, p. 2018Google Scholar
- Drakeford B, Pascoe S (2010) Substitution of fishmeal in salmon diets: can it be cost effective ? World Aquac 41:6–8Google Scholar
- ecoinvent (2019) ecoinvent 3.5 Database. Released August 23rd 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.ecoinvent.org/database/ecoinvent-35/ecoinvent-35.html
- EMEP/EEA (2016) EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2016: technical guidance to prepare national emission inventories. EEA Rep No21/2016 1–76. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2545
- FAO (2016) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture2016. Contributing to food security and nutrition for all. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
- FAO (2017) Fishery and aquaculture statistics. Global aquaculture production1950–2015 (FishstatJ). In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]Google Scholar
- FAO (2018) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture2018. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
- HenrikssonPJG, ZhangW, NahidSAAet al (2014a) Final LCA case study report primary data and literature sources adopted in the SEAT LCA studies. SEAT: Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture TradeGoogle Scholar
- HenrikssonPJG, ZhangW, NahidSAAet al (2014b) Final LCA case study report: results of LCA studies of Asian aquaculture Systems for Tilapia, Catfish, Shrimp, and Freshwater prawn. SEAT: Sustaining Ethical Aquaculture TradeGoogle Scholar
- HognesES (2014) PEFCR fish for human consumption pilot: goal and scope description. EU Environmental Footprint Pilot PhaseGoogle Scholar
- Laso J, Vázquez-Rowe I, Margallo M et al (2017b) Life cycle assessment of European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) landed by purse seine vessels in northern Spain. Int J Life Cycle Assess:1107–1125Google Scholar
- Merino G, Barange M, Blanchard JL, Harle J, Holmes R, Allen I, Allison EH, Badjeck MC, Dulvy NK, Holt J, Jennings S, Mullon C, Rodwell LD (2012) Can marine fisheries and aquaculture meet fish demand from a growing human population in a changing climate ? Glob Environ Chang 22:795–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ParkerR (2012) Review of life cycle assessment research on products derived from fisheries and aquaculture: A report for Seafish as part of the collective action to address greenhouse gas emissions in seafood. Final Rep 24Google Scholar
- Vázquez-Rowe I (2011) Fishing for solutions. Environmental and operational assessment of selected Galician fisheries and their products. Universidade de Santiago de CompostelaGoogle Scholar
- Vázquez-Rowe I, Villanueva-Rey P, Moreira MT, Feijoo G (2014) A review of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from worldwide hake fishing. In: Muthu SS (ed) Assessment of carbon footprint in different industrial sectors, 2. Springer, Hong Kong, pp 1–30Google Scholar
- Vázquez-Rowe I, Larrea-Gallegos G, Villanueva-Rey P, Gilardino A, van Wouwe JP (2017) Climate change mitigation opportunities based on carbon footprint estimates of dietary patterns in Peru. PLOS ONE 12 (11):e0188182Google Scholar
- VellingaTV, BlonkH, MarinussenMet al (2013) Methodology used in feedprint: a tool quantifying greenhouse gas emissions of feed production and utilization. Wageningen URGoogle Scholar