The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 2140–2172 | Cite as

Comparative life cycle assessment of metal arc welding technologies by using engineering design documentation

  • Claudio FaviEmail author
  • Federico Campi
  • Michele Germani



The paper aims to analyze and compare the environmental performances of metal arc welding technologies: gas metal arc welding (GMAW), shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), submerged arc welding (SAW), and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW). Welding is considered one of the most energy-intensive processes in manufacturing. This study was performed in accordance with the international standard ISO 14040/14044 by using attributional life cycle assessment (aLCA).


The functional unit is defined as the “the development of 1 metre of welding seam (qualified by ASME section IX requirements) to join 25 millimetres thick of metal plates made in carbon steel material and considering a V-bevel configuration.” Different configurations of base/filler materials and standardized bevel geometries have been analyzed as welding scenarios. The inventory considers all inputs (e.g., electric energy and filler material) and outputs (e.g., fume emissions and slags) involved in each welding process. A framework for data collection starting from available project documentation is presented as an innovative solution for the inventory phase. The impact assessment includes the human health, resources (midpoints/endpoint), and ecosystems (endpoint) categories from the ReCiPe (H) and cumulative energy demand (CED) methods.

Results and discussion

This study reveals a notable dominance in terms of the environmental burdens of GTAW and SMAW processes, as they present higher impacts in most of the impact categories. SMAW is the most energy-consuming process, and this aspect is reflected in the environmental performance. Conversely, GMAW presents the least environmental load, accounting for less than one third compared with GTAW in terms of the CED indicator and performing very well in terms of the ReCiPe endpoint indicator. Via analysis of different scenarios, the main outcomes are the following: (i) the use of V bevels significantly increases the environmental load when the metal plate thickness increases and (ii) the use of specific materials such as Inconel alloy exacerbates the environmental concerns associated with welding processes.


The use of project documentation allows robust analysis of welding activity. Sensitivity analysis shows how the range of values for specific parameters (e.g., volts and amps) affects each technology in a different manner. Indeed, those ranges have a limited impact on the result accuracy (up to 20%) for more automatized welding processes (e.g., GMAW, SAW, and FCAW), in which only a small number of parameters are set by the operator, and the operator skills are less influential on the quality of the weld.


Environmental impacts LCA LCI Metal arc welding Welding technologies 



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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Engineering and ArchitectureUniversità degli Studi di ParmaParmaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Industrial Engineering and Mathematical SciencesUniversità Politecnica delle MarcheAnconaItaly

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