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Agriculture, dairy and fishery farming practices and greenhouse gas emission footprint: a strategic appraisal for mitigation

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Abstract

Rising global population would force farmers to amplify food production substantially in upcoming 3–4 decades. The easiest way to increase grain production is through expanding cropping area by clearing uncultivated land. This is attained by permitting deadly loss of carbon (C) stocks, jeopardizing ecosystem biodiversity and deteriorating environmental quality. We aim to propose key agronomical tactics, livestock management strategy and advance approaches for aquaculture to increase productivity and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts of farming sector. For this, we considered three major sectors of farming, i.e. agriculture, fishery and dairy. We collected literatures stating approaches or technologies that could reduce GHG emission from these sectors. Thereafter, we synthesized strategies or options that are more feasible and accessible for inclusion in farm sector to reduce GHG emission. Having comprehensively reviewed several publications, we propose potential strategies to reduce GHG emission. Agronomic practices like crop diversification, reducing summer fallow, soil organic carbon sequestration, tillage and crop residue management and inclusion of N2-fixing pulses in crop rotations are some of those. Livestock management through changing animals’ diets, optimal use of the gas produced from manures, frequent and complete manure removal from animal housing and aquaculture management strategies to improve fish health and improve feed conversion efficiency could reduce their GHG emission footprint too. Adapting of effective and economic practices GHG emission footprint reduction potential of farming sector could make farming sector a C neutral enterprise. To overcome the ecological, technological and institutional barriers, policy on trade, tax, grazing practice and GHG pricing should be implemented properly.

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Abbreviations

GHG:

Greenhouse gas

C:

Carbon

IPCC:

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

GWP:

Global warming potential

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

N:

Nitrogen

CH4 :

Methane

N2O:

Nitrous oxide

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Acknowledgements

The first author sincerely acknowledges Director, IGFRI for his kind support and encouragement.

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Correspondence to Avijit Ghosh.

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Ghosh, A., Misra, S., Bhattacharyya, R. et al. Agriculture, dairy and fishery farming practices and greenhouse gas emission footprint: a strategic appraisal for mitigation. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07949-4

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Keywords

  • Greenhouse gas emission
  • Mitigation
  • Carbon neutral farming
  • Technology barrier
  • Aquaculture