Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Cadmium behavior in a karst environment hydrological cycle

Abstract

Karst regions are important water providers, supplying approximately 25% of the world population. These areas present higher vulnerability to contamination due to hydrodynamics, which hampers the natural depuration of these waters until reaching the underground environment. High concentrations of cadmium (Cd) are observed in the São Miguel watershed, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This toxic element is generally and predominantly released into the atmosphere by burning materials that have Cd in their composition, potentially contaminating surface and groundwater. Therefore, the objective of the study is to map Cd concentrations in the hydrological cycle of the São Miguel karst watershed and, through natural background level values (NBL 90%) of rainwater, surface water and groundwater, to understand the seasonal behavior of this element, and to identify the most vulnerable areas to contamination. To achieve this goal, rainwater, surface, and groundwater seasonal monitoring were conducted in 87 sampling stations. A total of 335 samples were collected, distributed over a watershed area of 520 km2. Concentrations of cadmium above 1 μg/L were found in 21.49% of samples during the rainy season. The origin and distribution of Cd were related to rainfall. For rainwater samples, 90% presented Cd concentration of 3.06 μg/L. When these waters precipitate, they contaminate surface waters (NBL 90% = 1.50 μg/L) and groundwater (NBL 90% = 2.81 μg/L). This study presented a hydrochemical cycle map and proposed NBL values of Cd for surface water and groundwater, helping to understand how the environment is contaminated by this element.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. Alkmim FF, Marshak S (1998) The Transamazonian orogeny in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Minas Gerais, Brazil: Paleoproterozoic collision and collapse in the Southern São Francisco Craton region. Precambrian Res 90:29–58

  2. Alkmim FF, Martins-Neto MA (2012) Proterozoic first–order sedimentary sequences of the São Francisco Craton, eastern Brazil. Mar Pet Geol 33(1):127–139

  3. Alvares CA, Stape JL, Sentelhas PC, Gonçalves JLM, Sparovek G (2013) Köppen’s climate classification map for Brazil. Meteorol Z 22(6):711–728

  4. Angelis C, Galdiero M, Pivonello C, Salzano C, Gianfrilli D, Piscitelli P, Lenzi A, Colao A, Pivonello R (2017) The environment and male reproduction: the effect of cadmium exposure on reproductive functions and its implication in fertility. Reprod Toxicol 1:105–127

  5. APAT-ISS (2006) Operational protocol for the determination of background values of metals and metalloids in the soils of contaminated sites

  6. ARW (1988) Jahresbericht. [45th annual report] Düsseldorf, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V

  7. Baird C, Cann M (2008) Environmental chemistry. New York WH. Freeman and Company, 4ª Ed., 847 pp

  8. Benjamin MM, Honeyman BD (1992) Heavy metals. In: Butcher SS, Charlson RJ, Orians GH, Wolfe GV (eds) Global biogeochemical cycles. Academic Press, London, 379p

  9. Borghetti CA (2002) The influence of the calcinating industry on the distribution and concentration of heavy metals in the soils of Córrego Fundo – Pains region (MG). 71f. Dissertation (Master in Geology) - Institute of Geosciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte

  10. Brazil Ministry of Health. Portaria n° 2914 (2011) Provides on the procedures for controlling and monitoring the quality of water for human consumption and its standard of potability. Official Daily of the Union, Brasília, p 39, Dec. 2001)

  11. BRAZIL. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. CONAMA Resolution n° 357 (2005) http://www.mma.gov.br/port/conama/legiabre.cfm?codlegi=459. Accessed Sep. 2017

  12. BRAZIL. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. CONAMA Resolution n° 396 (2008) Official gazette of the Federative Republic of Brazil, Executive Branch, Brasília, 2008. Resolutions Section

  13. Budavari S, O’neil MJ, Smith A, Heckelman PE (1989) The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 11 ed. Rahway: Merck & Co. Inc, p.245, 851, 927

  14. Cary R, Cllarke S, Delic J (1997) Effects of combined exposure to noise and toxic substances – critical review of the literature. Ann Occup Hyg 41:455–465

  15. Castillo S, de la Rosa JD, de la Campa AMS, Gonzalez-Castanedo Y, Fernandez-Caliani JC, Gonzalez I, Romero A (2013) Contribution of mine wastes to atmospheric metal deposition in the surrounding area of an abandoned heavily polluted mining district (Rio Tinto mines, Spain). Sci Total Environ 449:363 e 372

  16. CCREM - CANADIAN COUNCIL OF RESOURCE AND ENVIRONMENT MINISTERS (1987) Canadian water quality guidelines. Appendix XV: protocols for deriving water quality guidelines for the protection of agricultural water uses (Oct. 1993), Ottawa: Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines

  17. CETESB – ENVIRONMENTAL COMPANY OF THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO (1998) Sampling and water samples preservation guide. São Paulo, 150 p

  18. CETESB - ENVIRONMENTAL COMPANY OF THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO (2014) Report of establishment of guiding values for soils and groundwater in the State of São Paulo Environmental Report Series 3p. http://sgw.com.br/cetesb-atualiza-lista-de-valores-orientadores-para-solo-e-aguas-subterraneas.html. Accessed Oct. 2017

  19. CETESB (2016) Companhia Ambiental do Estado de São Paulo. Valores orientadores para solo e água subterrânea no estado de São Paulo. São Paulo. Disponível em: https://cetesb.sp.gov.br/aguas-subterraneas/wp-content/uploads/sites/13/2013/11/tabela_vos_2016_site.pdf

  20. Chen Z, Auler AS, Bakalowicz M, Drew D, Griger F, Hartmann J, Veni G (2017) The world karst aquifer mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe. Hydrogeol J 25(3):771–785

  21. Chow VT, Maidment DR, Mays LW (1988) Applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp 1–12

  22. CLIMATE-DATA.ORG. Climate: Pains. 2018. <https://pt. climate-data.org/location/42801/>. Accessed Feb. 2018

  23. Coetsiers M, Blaser P, Martens K, Walraevens K (2009) Natural background levels and threshold values for groundwater in fluvial Pleistocene and tertiary marine aquifers in Flanders, Belgium. Environ Geol 57(5):1155–1168

  24. Cooper DC, Morse JW (1998) Biogeochemical controls on trace metal cycling in anoxic marine sediments. Environ Sci Technol 32(3):327–330

  25. COPAM / CERH-MG – STATE COUNCIL OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY/STATE COUNCIL OF WATER RESOURCES OF THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS (2008) Joint Legislative Deliberation n° 01. http://www.siam.mg.gov.br/sla/download.pdf?idNorma=8151. Accessed Feb. 2017

  26. Cunha FG, Machado GJ (2004) Environmental geochemistry studies and the impact on public health in the municipality of São Gonçalo do Piauí, Piaui State National Research Program in Environmental Geochemistry and Medical Geology - PGAGEM, 1-36p

  27. Dardenne MA (1978) Synthesis on the stratigraphy of Bambuí Group in Central Brazil. In: Brazilian Congress of Geology, 30, Recife. Annals Recife: Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia, v.2, p.597–610

  28. De Caro M, Crosta GB, Frattini P (2017) Hydrogeochemical characterization and natural background levels in urbanized areas: Milan metropolitan area (Northern Italy). J Hydrol 547:455–473

  29. Dias FS, Menegasse LN (2002) Hydrogeology of the São Miguel river basin, municipalities of Pains and Arcos - MG. Águas Subterrâneas (1)

  30. Departamento Nacional de Pesquisa Mineral - DNPM (2017) Sigmine. Disponível em: http://sigmine.dnpm.gov.br/sad69/PE.zip

  31. Ducci D, Sellerino M (2012) Natural background levels for some ions in groundwater of the Campania region (southern Italy). Environ Earth Sci 67(3):683–693

  32. Edmunds WM, Shand P (2008) Natural groundwater quality. Wiley-Blackwell, London, p 488

  33. Edmunds WM, Shand P, Hart P, Ward RS (2003) The natural (baseline) quality of groundwater: a UK pilot study. Sci Total Environ 310:25–35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(02)00620-4

  34. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY - EPA (2001) Update of ambient water quality criteria for cadmium. Washington: Office Water, 2001a. 159 http://www.epa.gov/waerscience/criteria/aqualife

  35. Félix AA, Freitas Júnior RL (2000) Geological and hydrogeological mapping of the São Miguel River Basin, Upper São Francisco, State of Minas Gerais. Monographs of Geology Department, IGC/UFMG, Belo Horizonte 104 p

  36. Ferraro PM, Costanzi S, Naticchia A, Sturniolo A, Gambaro G (2010) Low level exposure to cadmium increases the risk of chronic kidney disease: analysis of the NHANES 1999-2006. BMC Public Health 10(1):304

  37. Ford DC, Williams PW (2007) Karst geomorphology and hydrology. Wiley, United Kingdom

  38. Förstner U (1989) Contaminated sediments. Lecture notes on earth sciences 21: 122 pp. springer-Verlag. London

  39. Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Vouk VB (1986) Handbook of the toxicology of metals. Vol. II. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 130–184

  40. Gabarrón M, Faz A, Acosta JA (2018) Use of multivariable and redundancy analysis to assess the behavior of metals and arsenic in urban soil and road dust affected by metallic mining as a base for risk assessment. J Environ Manag 206:192–201

  41. GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND (2009) Statutory instrument no. 272 of 2009. European Communities Environmental Objectives (Surface Waters) Regulations. The Stationery Office, Dublin, Ireland

  42. GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND (2014) Statutory Instrument n° 122 of 2014. European Union (Drinking Water) Regulations. The Stationery Office, Dublin, Ireland

  43. Greenpeace (2002) Corporate Environmental Crimes in Brazil. Available in: http://www.greenpeace.org.br

  44. Grotzinger J, Jordan T. (2013) Para entender a Terra. 6. ed. Porto Alegre: Bookman, 2013. 768pp.

  45. Haddad EA (2007) Anthropogenic influence on the water quality of the São Miguel river basin, Upper São Francisco karst, Minas Gerais. 156pp. Dissertation (Master in Geography) - Institute of Geosciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte

  46. Haddad EA, Magalhães AP Jr (2010) Anthropogenic influence on the water quality of the São Miguel river basin, Upper São Francisco karst, Minas Gerais. Geosul 25(49):79–102

  47. Hallenbeck WH (1984) Human health effects of exposure to cadmium. Experientia 40(2):136–142

  48. Hart RP, Rose CS, Hamer RM (1989) Neuropsychological effects of occupational exposure to cadmium. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 11(6):933–943

  49. Hartmann A, Goldscheider N, Wagener T, Lange J, Weiler M (2014) Karst water resources in a changing world: review of hydrological modeling approaches. Rev Geophys 52:218–242

  50. Hinsby K, Condesso, de Melo MT, Dahl M (2008) European case studies supporting the derivation of natural background levels and groundwater threshold values for the protection of dependent ecosystems and human health. Sci Total Environ 401:1–20

  51. Hui-Xia G, Wang L (2019) Cadmium: toxic effects on placental and embryonic development. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 67:102–107

  52. IARC - INTERNATIONAL AGENCY FOR RESEARCH ON CANCER (1993) Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry. In: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO–IARC). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, v. 58, 444 p

  53. IGAM - MINEIRO INSTITUTE OF WATER MANAGEMENT (2005) Report on the monitoring of surface waters in the São Francisco River basin in 2004. IGAM, Belo Horizonte, p 180

  54. ISPRA (2009) Protocol for the definition of basic values for inorganic substances in groundwater. http://wwwapat govit/site/_files/Fondo_metalli_acque_sotterraneepd Accessed Sept. 2017

  55. Järup L, Akesson A (2009) Current status of cadmium as an environmental health problem. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:201–208

  56. Jordão CP, Siqueira RNB, Goulart AT, Brune W (1990) Competitive adsorption of copper, lead, zinc and cadmium by humic acids in aqueous suspensions. Ciência e Cultura 42(10):797–801

  57. Köppen W (1931) Climatology. Fund of Economic Culture, Buenos Aires

  58. Liu JGRA, Goyer RA, Waalkes MP (2008) Toxic effects of metals. Casarett and Doull’s toxicology: The basic science of poisons, 931–979

  59. Lucon TN, Costa AT, Galvão P, Leite MGP (2018) Natural background levels and seasonal influence on groundwater chemistry of the Upper São Francisco karst region, MG, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology 48(4):867–879

  60. Marandi A, Karro E (2008) Natural background levels and threshold values of monitored parameters in the Cambrian-Vendian groundwater body, Estonia. Environ Geol 54(6):1217–1225

  61. Marín LE, Steinich B, Pacheco J, Escolero OA (2000) Hydrogeology of a contaminated sole-source karst aquifer, Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. Geofis Int 49(4):359–365

  62. Menegasse LN, Gonçalves JM, Fantinel LM (2002) Water availability in the karst province of Arcos-pains-Doresópolis, upper São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Águas Subterrâneas,16 (1), 1-19

  63. Monterroso PAC (2005) Distribution and behavior of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in the sediments and water column of the Aveiro River. Dissertation of chemistry department 219p. Aveiro University, Portugal

  64. Moraes AF (2007) vulnerability and risk of contamination of soils by heavy metals in the area of pains and Córrego Fundo - MG, based on the constituents of the soils that retain these metals. Dissertation (master in geology) - Institute of Geosciences, 156pp. Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte

  65. Moran SB, Yeats PA, Balls PW (1996) On the role of colloids in trace metal solid-solution partitioning in continental shelf waters: a comparison of model results and field data. Cont Shelf Res 16:397–408

  66. Mourão MAA, Cruz WB, Gonçalves RLF (2001) Hydrogeological characterization of the Minas Gerais portion of the São Francisco River basin. In: Pinto CP, Martins-Neto MA (eds) São Francisco Basin geology and natural resources. Belo Horizonte, SBG/MG, pp 327–350

  67. National Department of Mineral Research – DNPM (2017) Sigmine. Available: http://sigminednpmgovbr Accessed Mar. 2017

  68. Nordberg GF (2009) Historical perspectives on cadmium toxicology. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 238:192–200

  69. Pereira DL, Galvão P, Lucon TN, Fujaco MA (2019) Adapting the EPIK method to Brazilian hydro (geo) logical context of the São Miguel watershed to assess karstic aquifer vulnerability to contamination. J S Am Earth Sci 90:191–203

  70. Pires LO (2017) Chemical stratigraphy of the Éden Cave, Pains (MG). Monographs of Geology Department, Federal University of Ouro Preto, 161 pp

  71. RADAM BRAZIL (1983) sheets SF 23/24. Rio de Janeiro/Vitória. Geology, geomorphology, pedology, vegetation and potential land use - RADAM BRAZIL project. Rio de Janeiro

  72. Ramakrishnan S, Sulochana KN, Selvaraj T, Rahim AA, Lakshmi M, Arunagiri K (1995) Smoking of bee dies and cataract: cadmium and vitamin C in the lens and blood. Br J Ophthalmol, v 79:202–206

  73. REGIONAL SUPERINTENDENCY FOR ENVIRONMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – SUPRAM (2013) Single opinion no. 1861763/2013 - Minas Gerais

  74. Reimann C, Garret RG (2005) Geochemical background - concept and reality. Sci Total Environ 350:12–27

  75. Reimann C, Filzmoser P, Garrett RG (2005) Background and threshold: critical comparison of methods of determination. Sci Total Environ 346:1–16

  76. Ribeiro JH, Tuller MP, Danderfer Filho A (2003) Geological mapping of the Sete Lagoas region, Pedro Leopoldo, Matozinhos, Lagoa Santa, Vespasiano, Capim Branco, Prudente de Morais, Confins and Funilândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (scale1:50.000). 2° ed. Belo Horizonte 54 p

  77. Ribeiro JH, Tuller MP, Signorelli N, Féboli WL (2008a) Geological map of the Bom Despacho sheet (1:100.000). Belo Horizonte, CPRM

  78. Ribeiro A, Paciullo FVP, Senra AS, Valeriano CM, Trouw RAJ (2008b) Geology of the Piumhi sheet - SF.23-V-B-II, scale 1: 100.000: explanatory note. Minas Gerais: UFRJ/CPRM, 50p

  79. Saadi A (1991) Assay on the morphotectonic of Minas Gerais: intraplate tensions, crustal discontinuities and morphogenesis. F.131-191. Thesis of the Geography Department. Institute of Geosciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte

  80. Satarug S, Baker JR, Urbenjapol S, Haswell-Elkins M, Reilly PEB, Williams DJ, Moore MR (2003) A global perspective on cadmium pollution and toxicity in nonoccupationally exposed population. Toxicol Lett 137:65–83

  81. Schenone N, Volpedo AV, Cirelli AF (2007) Trace metal contents in water and sediments in Samborombón Bay wetland, Argentina. Wetl Ecol Manag 15(4):303–310

  82. SOCIEDADE EXCURSIONISTA ESPELEOLOGICA – SEE (2012) Project Arcos Pains Speleology. MPF/Ibama/FEAM/UFOP/FEOP/SEE. DEGEO/EM/UFOP. Ouro Preto, Aug. 2012. 549 p. Available in: www.see.ufop.br/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/projeto-arcos-pains-espeleologia.pdf

  83. SRH (Subsecretaria de Recursos Hídricos de Argentina) (2006) Niveles Guía de Calidad de Aguas. http://hidricos.obraspublicas.gov.ar/calidad_del_agua_actividades.htm.

  84. Strahler AN (1964) Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks, section 4 –II. In: handbook of applied hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, pp 4–39 – 4-76

  85. Sun HF, Li YH, Ji YF, Yang LS, Wang WY (2010) Environmental contamination and health hazard of lead and cadmium around Chatian mercury mining deposit in western Hunan Province. China Trans Nonferr Metal Soc China 20:308–314

  86. Tedd K, Coxon C, Misstear B, Daly D, Mannix A, Hunter Williams, T (2017) Assessing and developing natural background levels for chemical parameters in Irish groundwater (no. 183). EPA Research Report

  87. UNDERSECRETARY OF WATER RESOURCES OF ARGENTINA - SRH (2006) Levels of water quality guide. Available in http:// hidricos.obraspublicas.gov.ar/calidad_del_agua_actividades.htm

  88. UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY – USEPA (2017) Water quality standards handbook. Government Institute, USA

  89. Villanueva TCB, Leal LRB, Zucchi MDR, Miranda JGV, Azevedo AEGD, Villanueva PR (2014) Caracterização hidroquímica e hidrogeológica do aquífero cárstico Salitre na região de Irecê, Bahia. Revista Brasileira de Recursos Hídricos 19(4):83–96. https://doi.org/10.21168/rbrh.v19n4.p83-96

  90. Warnken KW, Gill GA, Griffin LL, Santschi PH (2001) Sediment-water exchange of Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn in Galveston Bay, Texas. Mar Chem 73(3):215–231

  91. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION – WHO (1993) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 2nd. Ed. Geneve. v.1 Recommendations. pp.1–15; 39–57. v.2 – Health criteria and other supporting information. pp.1–18; 82–86; 121–130; 195–201; 254–266; 325–326; 370–372; 383–385

  92. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION – WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, Fourth Edition. Available online: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/ publications/2011/dwq_guidelines/en/ Accessed Sep. 2017

  93. Wu P, Tang C, Zhu L, Liu C, Cha X, Tao X (2009) Hydrogeochemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater in the karst basin, Southwest China. Hydrol Process 23:2012–2022

  94. Xue H, Sigg L (1998) Cadmium speciation and complexation by natural organic ligands in fresh water. Anal Chem Acta 363:249–259

  95. Yun SW, Baveye PC, Kim KB, Kang DH, Lee SY, Son J, Kim DH, Yoon YC, Yu C (2016) Effect of postmining land use on the spatial distribution of metal(loid)s and their transport in agricultural soils: analysis of a case study of Chungyang, South Korea. J Geochem Explor 170:157e166

  96. Žáková Z, Kočková E (1999) Biomonitoring and assessment of heavy metal contamination of streams and reservoirs in the Dyje/Thaya river basin, Czech Republic. Water Sci Technol 39(12):225–232

  97. Zhang H, Reynolds M (2019) Cadmium exposure in living organisms: a short review. Sci Total Environ 678:761–767

  98. Zhang WL, Yu D, Zhai MM, Qi S (2014) Cadmium exposure and its health effects: a 19-year follow-up study of a polluted area in China. Sci Total Environ 470-471:224–228

  99. Zwahlen F (2004) Vulnerability and risk mapping for the protection of carbonate (karst) aquifers. Final report of cost action 620. Brussels: European Commission, Directorate - General XII Science, Research and Development

Download references

Acknowledgments

Special thanks go to the Postgraduate Program in Crustal Evolution and Natural Resources of the Geology Department of UFOP, the Excursionist and Speleological Society (SEE), Dr. Adriana Trópia and Dr. Leonardo Brandão, researchers of the laboratory LGqA-DEGEO and the National Research Council (CNPQ).

Author information

Correspondence to Thiago Nogueira Lucon.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Philippe Garrigues

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 24 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lucon, T.N., Costa, A.T., Galvão, P. et al. Cadmium behavior in a karst environment hydrological cycle. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07894-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Natural background level
  • Cadmium contamination
  • São Miguel watershed