Advertisement

Application of spatial analysis to investigate contribution of VOCs to photochemical ozone creation

  • Mohammad SakizadehEmail author
  • Mohamed Mostafa Mohamed
Research Article
  • 37 Downloads

Abstract

This study was concerned with the temporal analysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEXs), and ozone in Rochester, New York, between 2012 and 2018. Additionally, the influence of ozone precursors (e.g., BTEXs and NO2) and meteorological variables (e.g., relative humidity (RH), temperature along with wind speed) on ozone dispersion was investigated in the eastern half of the USA using the integrated nested Laplace approximation and stochastic partial differential equation (INLA-SPDE). The benzene variability at seasonal scale was characterized by higher values during the cold seasons. On the contrary, the long-term temporal trend of ozone depicted a repetitive cyclic behavior while an episode, with values exceeding 5 μg/m3, was detected associated with benzene in 2015. The spatial analysis by INLA-SPDE indicated that 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and benzene were the key ozone precursors influencing ozone formation. It was demonstrated that increase of temperature had a considerable impact on ozone build-up whereas the increment of RH leads to decrease in ambient values of ozone. The amounts of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and bias for the validation data (e.g., 32 samples) were 0.005, 0.004, and 0.0008, exhibiting a reasonable out-of-sample forecasting by the INLA-SPDE model. The distribution map of ozone highlighted a hot spot in the state of Florida.

Keywords

BTEX INLA-SPDE Ozone Polar plot Volatile organic compounds 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The data used in the current research were results of the collective efforts of dedicated field crews, laboratory staff, data management and quality control staff, analysts, and many others from EPA, states, tribes, federal agencies, universities, and other organizations. The authors express their gratitude to all of those who contributed to the production of these data.

Supplementary material

11356_2020_7628_MOESM1_ESM.docx (2.2 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 2282 kb)

References

  1. Atabi F, Moattar F, Mansouri N, Alesheikh A, Mirzahosseini S (2013) Assessment of variations in benzene concentration produced from vehicles and gas stations in Tehran using GIS. Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran) 10:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beguin J, Fuglstad GA, Mansuy N, Paré D (2017) Predicting soil properties in the Canadian boreal forest with limited data: comparison of spatial and non-spatial statistical approaches. Geoderma 306:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beloconi A, Chrysoulakis N, Lyapustin A, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P (2018) Bayesian geostatistical modelling of PM10 and PM2. 5 surface level concentrations in Europe using high-resolution satellite-derived products. Environ Int 121:57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blangiardo M, Cameletti M (2015) Spatial and spatio-temporal Bayesian models with R-INLA. John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  5. Blangiardo M, Cameletti M, Baio G, Rue H (2013) Spatial and spatio-temporal models with R-INLA. Spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology 4:33–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blangiardo M, Finazzi F, Cameletti M (2016) Two-stage Bayesian model to evaluate the effect of air pollution on chronic respiratory diseases using drug prescriptions. Spatial and spatio-temporal epidemiology 18:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bolden AL, Kwiatkowski CF, Colborn T (2015) New look at BTEX: are ambient levels a problem? Environ Sci Technol 49:5261–5276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brocco D, Fratarcangeli R, Lepore L, Petricca M, Ventrone I (1997) Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Rome. Atmos Environ 31:557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Camalier L, Cox W, Dolwick P (2007) The effects of meteorology on ozone in urban areas and their use in assessing ozone trends. Atmos Environ 41:7127–7137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cameletti M, Lindgren F, Simpson D, Rue H (2013) Spatio-temporal modeling of particulate matter concentration through the SPDE approach. AStA Advances in Statistical Analysis 97:109–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cameletti M, Gómez-Rubio V, Blangiardo M (2019) Bayesian modelling for spatially misaligned health and air pollution data through the INLA-SPDE approach. Spatial Statistics.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spasta.2019.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carlsen L, Bruggemann R, Kenessov B (2018) Use of partial order in environmental pollution studies demonstrated by urban BTEX air pollution in 20 major cities worldwide. Sci Total Environ 610:234–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carstens D, Amer R (2019) Spatio-temporal analysis of urban changes and surface water quality. J Hydrol 569:720–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cetin E, Odabasi M, Seyfioglu R (2003) Ambient volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations around a petrochemical complex and a petroleum refinery. Sci Total Environ 312:103–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chen C-H, Chuang Y-C, Hsieh C-C, Lee C-S (2019) VOC characteristics and source apportionment at a PAMS site near an industrial complex in central Taiwan. Atmospheric Pollution Research In pressGoogle Scholar
  16. Cho S, Vijayaraghavan K, Spink D, Cosic B, Davies M, Jung J (2017) Assessing the effects of oil sands related ozone precursor emissions on ambient ozone levels in the Alberta oil sands region, Canada. Atmos Environ 168:62–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dawson JP, Adams PJ, Pandis SN (2007) Sensitivity of ozone to summertime climate in the eastern USA: a modeling case study. Atmos Environ 41(7):1494–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Derwent RG, Jenkin ME, Saunders SM, Pilling MJ (1998) Photochemical ozone creation potentials for organic compounds in northwest Europe calculated with a master chemical mechanism. Atmos Environ 32(14–15):2429–2441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Duan J, Tan J, Yang L, Wu S, Hao J (2008) Concentration, sources and ozone formation potential of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during ozone episode in Beijing. Atmos Res 88:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Emami F, Masiol M, Hopke PK (2018) Air pollution at Rochester, NY: long-term trends and multivariate analysis of upwind SO2 source impacts. Sci Total Environ 612:1506–1515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fernández-Fernández MI, Gallego MC, García JA, Acero FJ (2011) A study of surface ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula during the last fifty years. Atmos Environ 45(11):1946–1959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fernández-Guisuraga JM, Castro A, Alves C, Calvo A, Alonso-Blanco E, Blanco-Alegre C, Rocha A, Fraile R (2016) Nitrogen oxides and ozone in Portugal: trends and ozone estimation in an urban and a rural site. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23(17):17171–17182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Garrigues S, Allard D, Baret F, Weiss M (2006) Quantifying spatial heterogeneity at the landscape scale using variogram models. Remote Sens Environ 103(1):81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Giustini F, Ciotoli G, Rinaldini A, Ruggiero L, Voltaggio M (2019) Mapping the geogenic radon potential and radon risk by using Empirical Bayesian Kriging regression: a case study from a volcanic area of central Italy. Sci Total Environ 661:449–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gomez-Rubio V (2019) Bayesian inference with INLA. Chapman and Hall/CRCGoogle Scholar
  26. Gorai AK, Tuluri F, Tchounwou PB, Ambinakudige S (2015) Influence of local meteorology and NO 2 conditions on ground-level ozone concentrations in the eastern part of Texas, USA. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health 8(1):81–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Han D, Wang Z, Cheng J, Wang Q, Chen X, Wang H (2017) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during non-haze and haze days in Shanghai: characterization and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:18619–18629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ho KF, Lee SC, Guo H, Tsai WY (2004) Seasonal and diurnal variations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ 322:155-166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang J, Malone BP, Minasny B, McBratney AB, Triantafilis J (2017) Evaluating a Bayesian modelling approach (INLA-SPDE) for environmental mapping. Sci Total Environ 609:621–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hui L, Liu X, Tan Q, Feng M, An J, Qu Y, Zhang Y, Jiang M (2018) Characteristics, source apportionment and contribution of VOCs to ozone formation in Wuhan, Central China. Atmos Environ 192:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Iovino P, Polverino R, Salvestrini S, Capasso S (2009) Temporal and spatial distribution of BTEX pollutants in the atmosphere of metropolitan areas and neighbouring towns. Environ Monit Assess 150:437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jia C, Mao X, Huang T, Liang X, Wang Y, Shen Y, Jiang W, Wang H, Bai Z, Ma M (2016) Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China. Atmos Res 169:225–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kerbachi R, Boughedaoui M, Bounoua L, Keddam M (2006) Ambient air pollution by aromatic hydrocarbons in Algiers. Atmos Environ 40:3995–4003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerchich Y, Kerbachi R (2012) Measurement of BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethybenzene, and xylene) levels at urban and semirural areas of Algiers City using passive air samplers. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 62:1370–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Khoder M (2009) Diurnal, seasonal and weekdays–weekends variations of ground level ozone concentrations in an urban area in greater Cairo. Environ Monit Assess 149:349–362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kim K-H, Kim M-Y (2002) The distributions of BTEX compounds in the ambient atmosphere of the Nan-Ji-Do abandoned landfill site in Seoul. Atmos Environ 36:2433–2446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kim KH, Chun H-H, Jo WK (2015) Multi-year evaluation of ambient volatile organic compounds: temporal variation, ozone formation, meteorological parameters, and sources. Environ Monit Assess 187:27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kim S-J, Kwon H-O, Lee M-I, Seo Y, Choi S-D (2019) Spatial and temporal variations of volatile organic compounds using passive air samplers in the multi-industrial city of Ulsan, Korea. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:5831–5841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kuo Y-M, Chiu C-H, Yu H-L (2015) Influences of ambient air pollutants and meteorological conditions on ozone variations in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 29:1037–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lee S, Chiu M, Ho K, Zou S, Wang X (2002) Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban atmosphere of Hong Kong. Chemosphere 48:375–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Li J, Georgescu M, Hyde P, Mahalov A, Moustaoui M (2015a) Regional-scale transport of air pollutants: impacts of Southern California emissions on Phoenix ground-level ozone concentrations. Atmos Chem Phys 15:9345–9360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Li L, Xie S, Zeng L, Wu R, Li J (2015b) Characteristics of volatile organic compounds and their role in ground-level ozone formation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, China. Atmos Environ 113:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Li K, Chen L, Ying F, White SJ, Jang C, Wu X, Gao X, Hong S, Shen J, Azzi M, Cen K (2017) Meteorological and chemical impacts on ozone formation: a case study in Hangzhou, China. Atmos Res 196:40–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lin M, Horowitz LW, Payton R, Fiore AM, Tonnesen G (2017) US surface ozone trends and extremes from 1980 to 2014: quantifying the roles of rising Asian emissions, domestic controls, wildfires, and climate. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics 15:17(4)Google Scholar
  45. Lindgren F, Rue H, Lindstrom J (2011) An explicit link between Gaussian fields and Gaussian Markov random ields: the stochastic partial differential equation approach (with discussion). Journal of Royal Statistical Society Series B 73(4):423–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ling Z, Guo H (2014) Contribution of VOC sources to photochemical ozone formation and its control policy implication in Hong Kong. Environ Sci Pol 38:180–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ling Z, Guo H, Cheng H, Yu Y (2011) Sources of ambient volatile organic compounds and their contributions to photochemical ozone formation at a site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. Environ Pollut 159:2310–2319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Liu Y, Li L, An J, Huang L, Yan R, Huang C, Wang H, Wang Q, Wang M, Zhang W (2018) Estimation of biogenic VOC emissions and its impact on ozone formation over the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Atmos Environ 186:113–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lyu X, Chen N, Guo H, Zhang W, Wang N, Wang Y, Liu M (2016) Ambient volatile organic compounds and their effect on ozone production in Wuhan, central China. Sci Total Environ 541:200–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Marć M, Zabiegała B, Namieśnik J (2014) Application of passive sampling technique in monitoring research on quality of atmospheric air in the area of Tczew, Poland. Int J Environ Anal Chem 94:151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marčiulaitienė E, Šerevičienė V, Baltrėnas P, Baltrėnaitė E (2017) The characteristics of BTEX concentration in various types of environment in the Baltic Sea region, Lithuania. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:4162–4173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martins EM, de Sá Borba PF, dos Santos NE, dos Reis PTB, Silveira RS, Corrêa SM (2016) The relationship between solvent use and BTEX concentrations in occupational environments. Environ Monit Assess 188:608CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Masih A, Lall AS, Taneja A, Singhvi R (2016) Inhalation exposure and related health risks of BTEX in ambient air at different microenvironments of a terai zone in north India. Atmos Environ 147:55–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McCarthy MC, Aklilu Y-A, Brown SG, Lyder DA (2013) Source apportionment of volatile organic compounds measured in Edmonton, Alberta. Atmos Environ 81:504–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McKenzie LM, Witter RZ, Newman LS, Adgate JL (2012) Human health risk assessment of air emissions from development of unconventional natural gas resources. Sci Total Environ 424:79–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Na K, Moon K-C, Kim YP (2005) Source contribution to aromatic VOC concentration and ozone formation potential in the atmosphere of Seoul. Atmos Environ 39:5517–5524CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Parra MA, Elustondo D, Bermejo R, Santamaria J (2009) Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain. Sci Total Environ 407:999–1009Google Scholar
  58. Poggio L, Gimona A, Spezia L, Brewer MJ (2016) Bayesian spatial modelling of soil properties and their uncertainty: the example of soil organic matter in Scotland using R-INLA. Geoderma 277:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rue H, Martino S, Chopin N (2009) Approximate Bayesian inference for latent Gaussian models by using integrated nested Laplace approximations. Journal of the royal statistical society: Series b (statistical methodology) 71(2):319–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rue H, Riebler A, Sørbye SH, Illian JB, Simpson DP, Lindgren FK (2017) Bayesian computing with INLA: a review. Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application 4:395–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sakizadeh M, Martín JAR, Zhang C, Sharafabadi FM, Ghorbani H (2018) Trace elements concentrations in soil, desert-adapted and non-desert plants in central Iran: spatial patterns and uncertainty analysis. Environ Pollut 243:270–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Santurtún A, González-Hidalgo JC, Sanchez-Lorenzo A, Zarrabeitia MT (2015) Surface ozone concentration trends and its relationship with weather types in Spain (2001–2010). Atmos Environ 101:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Simon H, Reff A, Wells B, Xing J, Frank N (2014) Ozone trends across the United States over a period of decreasing NOx and VOC emissions. Environ Sci Technol 49:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tohon HG, Fayomi B, Valcke M, Coppieters Y, Bouland C (2015) BTEX air concentrations and self-reported common health problems in gasoline sellers from Cotonou, Benin. Int J Environ Health Res 25:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tong DQ, Mauzerall DL (2006) Spatial variability of summertime tropospheric ozone over the continental United States: implications of an evaluation of the CMAQ model. Atmos Environ 40(17):3041–3056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Tong R, Yang Y, Shao G, Zhang Y, Dou S, Jiang W (2019) Emission sources and probabilistic health risk of volatile organic compounds emitted from production areas in a petrochemical refinery in Hainan, China. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal:1–21Google Scholar
  67. Tran NK, Steinberg SM, Johnson BJ (2000) Volatile aromatic hydrocarbons and dicarboxylic acid concentrations in air at an urban site in the Southwestern US. Atmos Environ 34:1845–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vukovich FM, Sherwell J (2003) An examination of the relationship between certain meteorological parameters and surface ozone variations in the Baltimore–Washington corridor. Atmospheric Environ 37(7):971–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wang G, Cheng S, Wei W, Zhou Y, Yao S, Zhang H (2016) Characteristics and source apportionment of VOCs in the suburban area of Beijing, China. Atmospheric Pollut Res 7:711–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yan Y, Yang C, Peng L, Li R, Bai H (2016) Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds from coal-, coal gangue-, and biomass-fired power plants in China. Atmos Environ 143:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Zheng J, Shao M, Che W, Zhang L, Zhong L, Zhang Y, Streets D (2009) Speciated VOC emission inventory and spatial patterns of ozone formation potential in the Pearl River Delta, China. Environ Sci Technol 43(22):8580–8586CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department for Management of Science and Technology DevelopmentTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  2. 2.Faculty of Environment and Labour SafetyTon Duc Thang UniversityHo Chi Minh CityVietnam
  3. 3.National Water CenterUnited Arab Emirates UniversityAl AinUnited Arab Emirates
  4. 4.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of EngineeringUnited Arab Emirates UniversityAl AinUnited Arab Emirates

Personalised recommendations