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Application of biochar in advanced oxidation processes: supportive, adsorptive, and catalytic role

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Abstract

The advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), especially sulphate radical (SO4•−)–based AOPs (SR-AOPs), have been considered more effective, selective, and prominent technologies for the removal of highly toxic emerging contaminants (ECs) due to wide operational pH range and relatively higher oxidation potential (2.5–3.1 V). Recently, biochar (BC)-based composite materials have been introduced in AOPs due to the dual benefits of adsorption and catalytic degradation, but the scientific review of BC-based catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) through radical- and non-radical-oriented routes for EC removal was rarely reported. The chemical treatments, such as acid/base treatment, chemical oxidation, surfactant incorporation, and coating and impregnation of minerals, were applied to make BC suitable as supporting materials (SMs) for the loading of Fenton catalysts to boost up peroxymonosulphate/persulphate/H2O2 activation to get ROSs including OH, SO4•−, 1O2, and O2•− for targeted pollutant degradation. In this review, all the possible merits of BC-based catalysts including supportive, adsorptive, and catalytic role are summarised along with the possible route for the development prospects of BC properties. The limitations of SR-AOPs especially on production of non-desired oxyanions, as well as disinfection intermediates and their potential solutions, have been identified. Lastly, the knowledge gap and future-oriented research needs are highlighted.

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Abbreviations

AC:

Activated carbon

AOPs:

Advanced oxidation processes

BC:

Biochar

CNTs:

Carbon nanotubes

CPC:

Cetylpyridinium chloride

DOM:

Dissolved organic matter

ECs:

Emerging contaminants

EDCs:

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals

FGs:

Functional groups

HTT:

Heat treatment temperature

O2 •- :

Superoxide radicals

SMZ:

Sulfamethoxazole

RhB:

Rhodamine B

SD:

Sulfadiazine

PFRs:

Persistent free radicals

MOFs:

Metal organic frameworks

OFGs:

Oxygen functional groups

PCP:

Pentachlorophenol

PMS:

Peroxymonosulphate

PDS:

Peroxydisulphate

PS:

Persulphate

HDBPs:

Harmful disinfection by-products

ROSs:

Reactive oxygen species

SMs:

Supporting materials

SR-AOPs:

Sulphate radical–based AOPs

TC:

Tetracycline

IBF:

Ibuprofen

NBCs:

N-doped biochars

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Faheem, Du, J., Kim, S.H. et al. Application of biochar in advanced oxidation processes: supportive, adsorptive, and catalytic role. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2020) doi:10.1007/s11356-020-07612-y

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Keywords

  • Biochar
  • Advanced oxidation processes
  • Heterogeneous catalyst
  • Wastewater
  • Catalytic degradation