Clean technology for synchronous sequestration of charged organic micro-pollutant onto microwave-assisted hybrid clay materials

  • Ajibola A. Bayode
  • Foluso O. AgunbiadeEmail author
  • Martins O. Omorogie
  • Roshila Moodley
  • Olusola Bodede
  • Emmanuel I. Unuabonah
Research Article


The Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG #6) of the United Nations (UN) is hinged on the provision, availability, and sustainability of water for the global populace by 2030. In a bid to achieve this goal, the quest to seek for ubiquitous and low-cost adsorbents to treat effluents laden with industrial dyes, such as methylene blue (MB), is on the increase in recent years. Acute exposure of humans to (MB) dye causes cyanosis, necrosis, and jaundice and even leads to death. In this research, zinc-modified hybrid clay composite adsorbent (materials from kaolinite and biomass (crushed Carica papaya seeds and/or plantain peel)) was developed via microwave route. This adsorbent was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). These characterization techniques confirmed the success achieved in doping hybrid clay with Zn. These adsorbents were used to sequester cationic dye (MB) from aqueous solutions and textile effluent under various experimental conditions. The adsorption and desorption data obtained were analyzed using various kinetic models, which are two-step kinetics, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, fractal kinetics, first-order desorption, second-order desorption, and modified statistical rate theory (MSRT) desorption models. Results showed that the adsorption of the dye occurred via several chemical interactions, while the latter models (for desorption) indicated that desorption occurred in two different desorption sites on the adsorbent surfaces, which showed that the adsorption of MB dye onto the adsorbents was stable without the emergence of any secondary pollution. Adsorption of MB was achieved within 15 min for aqueous solutions and 900 min for textile effluent, which is an improvement on previous results from other studies. The three adsorption-desorption cycles for MB uptake by the adsorbents showed that it is pragmatically applicable to treat textile effluents. Hence, low-cost composite adsorbents have a potential for the effective remediation of MB dye from textile effluents as this study confirmed.


Textile effluent Dye Microwave synthesis Adsorption Hybrid clay 


Supplementary material

11356_2019_7563_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.9 mb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 1930 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Sciences, Environmental and Chemical Processes Research LaboratoryRedeemer’s UniversityEdeNigeria
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of LagosAkokaNigeria
  3. 3.African Center of Excellence for Water Research (ACEWATER)Redeemer’s UniversityEdeNigeria
  4. 4.School of Chemistry and PhysicsUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal, Westville CampusDurbanSouth Africa
  5. 5.Departamento de Química e Física Molecular, Instituto de Química de Sao Carlos Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental e Ecotoxicologia (LaQuAAE)Universidade de Sao PauloSao CarlosBrazil

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