Fungal community succession under influence of biochar in cow manure composting

  • Xin Jiang
  • Liting Deng
  • Qingxin Meng
  • Yu Sun
  • Yue Han
  • Xiaotong Wu
  • Siyuan Sheng
  • Haifeng Zhu
  • Bello Ayodeji
  • Ugochi Uzoamaka Egbeagu
  • Xiuhong XuEmail author
Research Article


This study examined the influence of biochar addition on fungal community during composting of cow manure using high-throughput sequencing. Two treatments were set up, including compost of cow manure plus 10% biochar (BC) and cow manure compost without biochar (CK). Fungal community composition varied obviously during composting in both treatments, and main fungi included Aspergillus, Myriococcum, Thermomyces, Mycothermus, Scedosporium, Cladosporium, and unclassified Microascaceae. Fungal community composition was altered by biochar during composting, especially during the thermophilic and the cooling phase, promoting Aspergillus and Myriococcum while inhibiting unclassified Microascaceae and Thermomyces. Based on linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis, common indicator groups were detected in both composts; however, specific indicator groups were also found in BC treatment, including Clavicipitaceae, Tremellales, Gibberella, and Coprinopsis. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that moisture content, organic matter, C/N, and pH had significant correlation (p < 0.05) with fungal composition in both treatments. However, in compost added with biochar, temperature was not an important factor affecting fungal community (p > 0.05).


Compost Biochar Cow manure Fungal community Succession High-throughput sequencing 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by National Natural Science Fund of China (31672469).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

11356_2019_7529_MOESM1_ESM.docx (311 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 311 kb)


  1. Aquino ACMM, Jorge JA, Terenzi HF, Polizeli MLTM (2003) Studies on a thermostable alpha-amylase from the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 61(4):323–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awasthi MK, Li J, Kumar S, Awasthi SK, Zhang Z (2017) Effects of biochar amendment on bacterial and fungal diversity for co-composting of gelatin industry sludge mixed with organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Bioresour Technol 246:214–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker GC, Smith JJ, Cowan DA (2004) Review and re-analysis of domain-specific 16s primers. J Microbiol Methods 55(3):541–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basotra N, Kaur B, Di Falco M, Tsang A, Chadha BS (2016) Mycothermus thermophilus (Syn. Scytalidium thermophilum): repertoire of a diverse array of efficient cellulases and hemicellulases in the secretome revealed. Bioresour Technol 222:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonito G, Isikhuemhen OS, Vilgalys R (2010) Identification of fungi associated with municipal compost using DNA-based techniques. Bioresour Technol 101(3):1021–1027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen W, Liao X, Wu Y, Liang JB, Mi J, Huang J, Zhang H, Wu Y, Qiao Z, Li X, Wang Y (2017a) Effects of different types of biochar on methane and ammonia mitigation during layer manure composting. Waste Manag 61:506–515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chen Z, Wang Y, Wen Q (2017b) Effects of chlortetracycline on the fate of multi-antibiotic resistance genes and the microbial community during swine manure composting. Environ Pollut 237:977–987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Du J, Zhang Y, Qu M, Yin Y, Fan K, Hu B, Zhang H, Wei M, Ma C (2018) Effects of biochar on the microbial activity and community structure during sewage sludge composting. Bioresour Technol 272:171–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Duan Y, Awasthi SK, Chen H, Liu T, Zhang Z, Zhang L, Awasthi MK, Taherzadeh MJ (2018a) Evaluating the impact of bamboo biochar on the fungal community succession during chicken manure composting. Bioresour Technol 272:308–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Duan Y, Awasthi SK, Liu T, Chen H, Zhang Z, Wang Q, Ren X, Tu Z, Awasthi MK, Taherzadeh MJ (2018b) Dynamics of fungal diversity and interactions with environmental elements in response to wheat straw biochar amended poultry manure composting. Bioresour Technol 274:410–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galitskaya P, Biktasheva L, Saveliev A, Grigoryeva T, Boulygina E, Selivanovskaya S (2017) Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing. PLoS One. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gu W, Lu Y, Tan Z, Xu P, Xie K, Li X, Li S (2017) Fungi diversity from different depths and times in chicken manure waste static aerobic composting. Bioresour Technol 239:447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hait S, Tare V (2012) Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting–vermicomposting of sewage sludges. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 79:214–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ho A, Ijaz UZ, Janssens TKS, Ruijs R, Kim SY, De Boer W (2017) Effects of bio-based residue amendments on greenhouse gas emission from agricultural soil are stronger than effects of soil type with different microbial community composition. GCB Bioenergy 9:1707–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jiang C, Wu Y, Cheng Y (2017) Bacterial and fungal communities and contribution of physicochemical factors during cattle farm waste composting. Microbiologyopen 6(6):518–529Google Scholar
  16. Jindo K, Sánchez-Monedero MA, Hernández T, García C, Furukawa T, Matsumoto K, Sonoki T, Bastida F (2012a) Biochar influences the microbial community structure during manure composting with agricultural wastes. Sci Total Environ 416:476–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Jindo K, Suto K, Matsumoto K, García C, Sonoki T, Sánchez-Monedero MA (2012b) Chemical and biochemical characterisation of biochar-blended composts prepared from poultry manure. Bioresour Technol 110:396–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jindo K, Sonoki T, Matsumoto K, Canellas L, Roig A, Miguel A (2016) Influence of biochar addition on the humic substances of composting manures. Waste Manag 49:545–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Khan N, Clark I, Sánchez-Monedero MA, Syd S, Sebastian M, Nanthi B (2014) Maturity indices in co-composting of chicken manure and sawdust with biochar. Bioresour Technol 168:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Klamer M, Bååth E (1998) Microbial community dynamics during composting of straw material studied using phospholipid fatty acid analysis. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 27:9–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Langarica-Fuentes A, Zafar U, Heyworth A, Brown T, Fox G, Robson GD (2014) Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 88(2):296–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lehmann J, Gaunt J, Rondon M (2006) Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems – a review. Mitig Adapt Strat Gl 11:395–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lei F, VanderGheynst JS (2000) The effect of microbial inoculation and pH on microbial community structure changes during composting. Process Biochem 35:923–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Li R, Wang Q, Zhang Z, Zhang G, Li Z, Wang L, Zheng J (2015) Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures. Environ Technol 36(7):815–826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lim SL, Wu TY (2016) Characterization of matured vermicompost derived from valorization of palm oil mill by-product. J Agric Food Chem 64(8):1761–1769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Liu B, Li Y, Zhang X, Feng C, Gao M, Shen Q (2015) Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure. Bioresour Technol 175:284–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. López-González JA, Suárez-Estrella F, Vargas-García MC, López MJ, Jurado MM, Moreno J (2015) Dynamics of bacterial microbiota during lignocellulosic waste composting: studies upon its structure, functionality and biodiversity. Bioresour Technol 175:406–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maeda K, Hanajima D, Morioka R, Osada T (2010) Characterization and spatial distribution of bacterial communities within passively aerated cattle manure composting piles. Bioresour Technol 101(24):9631–19367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mbareche H, Veillette M, Bonifait L, Dubuis ME, Benard Y, Geneviève M (2017) A next generation sequencing approach with a suitable bioinformatics workflow to study fungal diversity in bioaerosols released from two different types of composting plants. Sci Total Environ 601-602:1306–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Meng Q, Yang W, Men M, Bello A, Xu X, Xu B, Deng L, Jiang X, Sheng S, Wu X, Han Y, Zhu H (2019) Microbial community succession and response to environmental variables during cow manure and corn straw composting. Front Microbiol 10:529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Michael-Kordatou I, Michael C, Duan X, He X, Dionysiou DD, Mills MA (2015) Dissolved effluent organic matter: characteristics and potential implications in wastewater treatment and reuse applications. Water Res 77:213–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Noble R, Roberts SJ (2004) Eradication of plant pathogens and nematodes during composting: a review. Plant Pathol 53(5):548–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Partanen P, Hultman J, Paulin L, Auvinen P, Romantachuk M (2010) Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process. BMC Microbiol 10(1):94–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Renaud M, Chelinho S, Alvarenga P, Mourinha C, Palma P, Sousa JP, Natal-da-Luz T (2017) Organic wastes as soil amendments – effects assessment towards soil invertebrates. J Hazard Mater 330:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ryckeboer J, Mergaert J, Vaes K, Klammer S, De Clercq D, Coosemans J, Insam H, Swings J (2003) A survey of bacteria and fungi occurring during composting and self-heating processes. Ann Microbiol 53:349–410Google Scholar
  36. Santiago-Rodriguez TM, Toranzos GA, Bayman P, Massey SE, Cano RJ (2013) Sociomicrobiome of wood decay in a tropical rain forest: unraveling complexity. Springerplus 2:435–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Singh S, Madlala AM, Prior BA (2010) Thermomyces lanuginosus: properties of strains and their hemicellulases. FEMS Microbiol Rev 27(1):3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sun ZY, Zhang J, Zhong XZ, Tan L, Tang YQ, Kida K (2016) Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system. Waste Manag 51:55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thompson W, Leege P, Watson M E, (2002) TMECC (Test Methods for the Examination of Composts and Composting). In: The US Composting Council, US Government Printing Office. Available from: < >
  40. Tian X, Yang T, He J, Chu Q, Jia X, Huang J (2017) Fungal community and cellulose-degrading genes in the composting process of Chinese medicinal herbal residues. Bioresour Technol 241:374–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tiquia SM (2005) Microbial community dynamics in manure composts based on 16S and 18S rDNA T-RFLP profiles. Environ Technol 26(10):1101–1114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Varma VS, Ramu K, Kalamdhad AS (2015) Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste. Environ Sci Pollut R 22(10):7851–7858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Villar I, Alves D, Garrido J, Mato S (2016) Evolution of microbial dynamics during the maturation phase of the composting of different types of waste. Waste Manag 54:83–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wang K, Yin X, Mao H, Chu C, Tian Y (2018) Changes in structure and function of fungal community in cow manure composting. Bioresour Technol 255:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yu Z, Tang J, Liao H, Liu X, Zhou P, Chen Z, Rensing C, Zhou S (2018) The distinctive microbial community improves composting efficiency in a full-scale hyperthermophilic composting plant. Bioresour Technol 265:146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zeng G, Zhang J, Chen Y, Yu Z, Yu M, Li H (2011) Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting. Bioresour Technol 102(19):9026–9032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zhang L, Sun X (2014) Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar. Bioresour Technol 171:274–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang J, Zeng G, Chen Y, Yu M, Yu Z, Li H, Yu Y, Huang H (2011) Effects of physico-chemical parameters on the bacterial and fungal communities during agricultural waste composting. Bioresour Technol 102:2950–2956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zhou G, Xu X, Qiu X, Zhang J (2019) Biochar influences the succession of microbial communities and the metabolic functions during rice straw composting with pig manure. Bioresour Technol 27:10–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xin Jiang
    • 1
  • Liting Deng
    • 1
  • Qingxin Meng
    • 1
  • Yu Sun
    • 1
  • Yue Han
    • 1
  • Xiaotong Wu
    • 1
  • Siyuan Sheng
    • 1
  • Haifeng Zhu
    • 1
  • Bello Ayodeji
    • 1
  • Ugochi Uzoamaka Egbeagu
    • 1
  • Xiuhong Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentNortheast Agricultural UniversityHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations