Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Effect of acid-treated and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide–modified montmorillonites on adsorption performance of mycotoxins

  • 41 Accesses


A series of modified montmorillonites treated by acid and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) were prepared and characterized, and their adsorption performances for three mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and deoxynivalenol) were evaluated at pH 2.8 and 8.0, respectively. The results indicate that the layers of raw montmorillonite are exfoliated after acid treatment and more active sites for adsorption of weak polar mycotoxins are exposed. While the intercalation of HTAB leads to an obvious increase of the interlamellar spacing and hydrophobic character of montmorillonite. The HTAB-AMMT-3 modified by acid and HTAB exhibits excellent adsorption capacity towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) whether in acidic or alkaline conditions compared with raw montmorillonite (MMT). However, all modified montmorillonites have low adsorption capacity for DON due to its poor planarity preventing it from entering into interfacial layer of montmorillonite.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7


  1. Burton AW, Ong K, Rea T, Chan IY (2009) On the estimation of average crystallite size of zeolites from the Scherrer equation: a critical evaluation of its application to zeolites with one-dimensional pore systems. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 117:75–90

  2. Chaytor AC, Hansen JA, van Heugten E, See MT, Kim SW (2011) Occurrence and decontamination of mycotoxins in swine feed. Asian Australas J Anim Sci 24:723–738

  3. D'Amico DA, Ollier RP, Alvarez VA, Schroeder WF, Cyras VP (2014) Modification of bentonite by combination of reactions of acid-activation, silylation and ionic exchange. Appl Clay Sci 99:254–260

  4. De Mil T, Devreese M, De Baere S, Van Ranst E, Eeckhout M, De Backer P, Croubels S (2015) Characterization of 27 mycotoxin binders and the relation with in vitro zearalenone adsorption at a single concentration. Toxins (Basel) 7:21–33

  5. Deng Y, Szczerba M (2011) Computational evaluation of bonding between aflatoxin B1 and smectite. Appl Clay Sci 54:26–33

  6. Deng Y, Velázquez ALB, Billes F, Dixon JB (2010) Bonding mechanisms between aflatoxin B1 and smectite. Appl Clay Sci 50:92–98

  7. Desheng Q, Fan L, Yanhu Y, Niya Z (2005) Adsorption of aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite. Poult Sci 84:959–961

  8. Eren E, Afsin B (2008) An investigation of Cu(II) adsorption by raw and acid-activated bentonite: a combined potentiometric, thermodynamic, XRD, IR, DTA study. J Hazard Mater 151:682–691

  9. Feng J, Shan M, Du H, Han X, Xu Z (2008) In vitro adsorption of zearalenone by cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 113:99–105

  10. Grant PG, Phillips T (1998) Isothermal adsorption of aflatoxin B(1) on HSCAS clay. J Agric Food Chem 46:599

  11. He H, Frost RL, Bostrom T, Yuan P, Duong L, Yang D, Xi Y, Kloprogge JT (2006) Changes in the morphology of organoclays with HDTMA+ surfactant loading. Appl Clay Sci 31:262–271

  12. Hu XR (2000) Determination of cation-exchange capacity in clay [Co(NH3)6] 3 + exchange method. Chin J Anal Chem 28:1402–1405

  13. Hu Z, He G, Liu Y, Dong C, Wu X, Zhao W (2013) Effects of surfactant concentration on alkyl chain arrangements in dry and swollen organic montmorillonite. Appl Clay Sci 75-76:134–140

  14. Hussin F, Aroua MK, Daud WMAW (2011) Textural characteristics, surface chemistry and activation of bleaching earth: a review. Chem Eng J 170:90–106

  15. Komadel P (2016) Acid activated clays: materials in continuous demand. Appl Clay Sci 131:84–99

  16. Komadel P, Madejová J (2013) Acid activation of clay minerals, Handbook of Clay Science Developments in Clay Science, pp 385–409

  17. Kong C, Shin SY, Kim BG (2014) Evaluation of mycotoxin sequestering agents for aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol: an in vitro approach. SpringerPlus 3:1–4

  18. Kooli F, Liu Y, Alshahateet SF, Messali M, Bergaya F (2009) Reaction of acid activated montmorillonites with hexadecyl trimethylammonium bromide solution. Appl Clay Sci 43:357–363

  19. Kooli F, Liu Y, Al-Faze R, Al Suhaimi A (2015) Effect of acid activation of Saudi local clay mineral on removal properties of basic blue 41 from an aqueous solution. Appl Clay Sci 116-117:23–30

  20. Lgaly G (1989) Principles of flow of kaolin and bentonite dispersions. Appl Clay Sci 4:105–123

  21. Li Y, Tian G, Dong G, Bai S, Han X, Liang J, Meng J, Zhang H (2018) Research progress on the raw and modified montmorillonites as adsorbents for mycotoxins: a review. Appl Clay Sci 163:299–311

  22. Nones J, Nones J, Poli A, Trentin AG, Riella HG, Kuhnen NC (2016) Organophilic treatments of bentonite increase the adsorption of aflatoxin B1 and protect stem cells against cellular damage. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 145:555–561

  23. Phillips TD, Afriyie-Gyawu E, Williams J, Huebner H, Ankrah NA, Ofori-Adjei D, Jolly P, Johnson N, Taylor J, Marroquin-Cardona A, Xu L, Tang L, Wang JS (2008) Reducing human exposure to aflatoxin through the use of clay: a review. Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 25:134–145

  24. Richard JL (2007) Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses-an overview. Int J Food Microbiol 119:3–10

  25. Santos RR, Vermeulen S, Haritova A, Fink-Gremmels J (2011) Isotherm modeling of organic activated bentonite and humic acid polymer used as mycotoxin adsorbents. Food Addit Contam A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 28:1578–1589

  26. Schoonheydt RA, Johnston CT (2013) Surface and interface chemistry of clay minerals, Handbook of Clay Science. Developments in Clay Science, pp 139–172

  27. Shehata S, Richter W, Schuster M, Lindermayer HJMR (2004) Effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) on growing pigs and its modification by modified yeast cell wall or modified yeast cell wall and bentonite. Mycotoxin Res 20:42–48

  28. Thimm N, Schwaighofer B, Ottner F, Fröschl H, Greifenender S, Binder EMJMR (2001) Adsorption of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin Res 17:219–223

  29. Wang G, Miao Y, Sun Z, Zheng S (2018a) Simultaneous adsorption of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone by mono- and di-alkyl cationic surfactants modified montmorillonites. J Colloid Interface Sci 511:67–76

  30. Wang X, Ufer K, Kleeberg R (2018b) Routine investigation of structural parameters of dioctahedral smectites by the Rietveld method. Appl Clay Sci 163:257–264

  31. Yenera N, Biçerb C, Önalc M, Sarıkaya Y (2012) Simultaneous determination of cation exchange capacity and surface area of acid activated bentonite powders by methylene blue sorption. Appl Surf Sci 258:2534–2539

  32. Zeng L, Wang SP (2013) Adsorption of zearalenone by montmorillonite. Adv Mater Res 683:343–347

  33. Zhang ZZ, Sparks DL, Scrivner NC (2002) Sorption and desorption of quaternary amine cations on clays. Environ Sci Technol 27:1625–1631

Download references


This study received financial supports from Nature Science Foundation of China (21177110).

Author information

Correspondence to Renxian Zhou.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Responsible editor: Tito Roberto Cadaval Jr

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mao, J., Lv, G. & Zhou, R. Effect of acid-treated and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide–modified montmorillonites on adsorption performance of mycotoxins. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 4284–4293 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-07118-2

Download citation


  • Adsorption
  • Modified montmorillonite
  • Aflatoxin B1
  • Zearalenone
  • Deoxynivalenol