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Assessment of a batch-flow free water surface constructed wetland planted with Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton for campus greywater treatment


A pilot-scale batch-flow free water surface (FWS) constructed wetland (CW) system planted with Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton was developed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.5 days. The average porosity of the substrate was 0.55 and calculated hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was 3.96 (g BOD/m2-day). Quantitative and qualitative characterization of the greywater were done. The concentrations of pollutants in the greywater before and after it was fed into the FWS CWs were measured using standard sampling and analyses methods. The average daily per capita water use estimated was 162 L, out of which 72.5 L was greywater. The mean removal efficiencies (RE) of the CWs were 81% COD, 85% TN, 82% TK, 10% TP, 0.2% pH, 81% TSS, Zn 91%, 81% Al, 94% Mg, and 90% Fe. It was observed that the FWS with batch-flow configuration tested in the study was slightly different in terms of results reported on the conventional continuous flow system. R. corymbosa as a macrophyte has roots that can provide a surface area for microbial growth and oxygen exchange and can be used as emergent macrophytes in phytoremediation of greywater. The result provided information on the performance and pollutant removal efficiency of a batch-operated FWS CW system planted with R. corymbosa.

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The authors thank the laboratory staff and assistants for their commitment. We also appreciate the reviewers whose comments and corrections improved the quality of this work.

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Correspondence to Davids O. Raphael.

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Raphael, D.O., Okunade, D.A., Ogedengbe, K. et al. Assessment of a batch-flow free water surface constructed wetland planted with Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton for campus greywater treatment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27, 4275–4283 (2020).

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  • Free water surface
  • Constructed wetlands
  • Greywater
  • Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Britton phytoremediation
  • Batch-flow